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CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF EXAMINATION MALPRACTICE IN INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER LEARNING IN NIGERIA (A CASE OF INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGY, (IMT) ENUGU)

CHAPTER ONE

1.1            GENERAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

In many institutions around the world the word “MALPRACTICE” has become a common phenomenon.

According to oxford dictionary, malpractice is defined as: “a careless illegal or unacceptable behaviour by the somebody in a professional or official positive, e.g. medical practice”.

Advance learners dictionary defines malpractice as act of behaviour improperly and illegal in one’s business affairs.

The chamber’s 20th century dictionary defines examination as it relates to education as “an assessment tool used to determine the level of learning of a student in school or pupil in school” usually the result of such examinations are used to effect promotion course to another or a basis for possession of a certificate for job placement or as a means to something else.  Normally there are rules and regulations for the conduct of such examination for the out come to be accepted by reasonable people or authorities, therefore, malpractice occurs when other students or teachers, examiners or invigilators tries to deviate from such established now.

In other words, examination malpractice will occur where either the student have refused to abide by the rules or regulations guiding the conduct of an examination like other society, i.e. such as forgery, thief and other fraudulent practices in the examination.

Cheating has  reached a crisis point in the nation’s education system.

Delivering a lecture recently at the 2nd biennial delegates conference of theNigeria union of teacher (NUT).

The name I.M.T., which stands for institute of management of technology, was established to help train manpower in technical or technological field.  Also train and develop students in managerial (i.e.(management field) so that our country Nigeria will have expert measuring in different areas of learning since the time the growth in education resulting from  past experience is a metamorphosis that bring about discernible change in people.  As a matter of fact, no part of the society can afford to abandon or neglect education.  This is because of the benefit derived from such training.

Dr. Olaguni, Odubunmi of the curriculum department ofLagosstate university, listed seven ways through which examination malpractice occurs among students inNigeria(including I.M.T Enugu and the college of education) as well as other universities and polytechnics.  There are:

1.       Giraffing (stretch the neck with intention of cheating)

2.       Entering the examination hall with text book as reminder.

3.       Prepared answers cells taped to the uniform at the back.

4.       Use of short-hand

5.       Use of mercenaries

6        Entering the hall with prepared scripts hidden in socks, pockets.

7.       Smuggling out question paper and answers scripts.

In higher institutions, theNigeriaare faced with the determiner of coping with the various aspects of examination malpractice such as leakage , cheating.  Equally our respective media house such a radio, television newspapers, journals have been saddled with case of examination fraud to the extent that even the common man in the street cannot afford to claim ignorance of it.

It is worthy to observed that  examination malpractice has since over the years caused a lot of grief, anxiety, worries and other psychosocial imbalance in both the lectured, parents educational administration bodies and the generality of the society in Nigeria, because of the causes and effects.  The federal government promulgated degree No. 21 of 1984 (miscellaneous offenses) to minimize the examination malpractice in higher institutions inNigeria.  Twenty-one years imprisonment it the penalty involved with such examination malpractice.

Infact, the conduct of examination appear to have further entrenched the age long cankerworm of cheating in varied shade during examination said Egbue (1991) on the uncontrollable problem which is endemic in all school of higher institutions in the country.  Those who are caught and punished are suit a very fraction of the culprits.  They are rigmarole by fellow students as the unfortunate ones regardless of what the school authorities are doing especially I.M.T Enugu students are becoming sophisticated in perfecting the art of cheating.

But regrettably, the aphorism “that an examination is not a true best of knowledge” still holds “Expo Expert” i.e. the examination cheaters has made that aphorism organically true today and has given life to another saying “there is more than one way to pass examination”.

The expert believe that it is not only by burning the midnight oil, or by swatting, or by reading and reciting, it is also by cheating that many student today scale through their exam.

As a result of the rampant malpractice the  authorities at institute of management and technology (I.M.T),Enuguhad decided to set up a malpractice committer.  The present situation therefore, demands that a stiffer measure be taken on the root causes of examination malpractice and its effects in our educational institutions with a view of finding a lasting solution to it.

1.2     PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE SUBJECT MATTER

this has to do with the cause of examination malpractice and it includes the following.

i.        Lack of secondary and learning facilities

ii.       Poor societal and parental orientation

iii.      Bribery and corruption on the part of lecturers

iv.      Lack of good learning conditions

v.       Favouritism

vi.      Admission of so many student in a department

vii.     Intimidation of secret cult member on the part of lecturers.

1.3     PROBLEMS THAT THE STUDY BE CONCERNED WITH

This has to do with the explanation or discussion of the causes of examination malpractice in institution of higher learning as it relates to institute of management of technology (I.M.T.),Enugu.

1.3.    LACK OF TEACHING AND LEARNING FACILITIES.

This has to do with the seat and desks, good black boards, dusters and chalk, which students make use of while attending lectures.  Absence of these facilities make students nonchalant about  attending lectures thereby diverting their minds to malpractice during examinations.

1.3.2  POR SOCIETAL AND PARENTAL ORIENTATION.

This seems to be major cause of examination malpractice because whatever a child does denied on his upbringing some parentals encourage their children to indulge in examination malpractice by given them money to enter lecturers to award them higher marks or to sneak out question paper to them.

1.4     THE IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY

a.       The study has revealed that most students should be academically serious to prevent case of malpractice.

Adequate teaching-this contributes so much in solving examination malpractice it makes learning enthusiastic and effective assimilation of the lesson.

b.       The desire for pavaent to understand and inculcate the importance of meant to children, as this will help reduce the incidence of examination malpractice.

c.       The study is intended to identify ways to curb examination malpractice.

d.       The study if concluded will equally reveal that regular punishment will help to reduce examination fraud.

DEFININTION OF TERMS

The following term are hereby defined as they are used in the content of project work

EXAMINATION:         A formal test of knowledge or ability in a particular subject.

MALRACTICE: Wrong doing as careless illegally or unacceptable behavior on duty before or during the examination.

EXPO”:     Leakage of examination paper before or during the examination

ECOMOG”:  A strong device used to cause tension and noise in examination hall for easy snatching of question paper from the  supervisor.

REFERENCES

Achebe, C. (1992) The Trouble withNigeriaEnugu: Fourth Dimension Publisher.

Odubunmi, Olagunji: Dr. (1997) “Curbing Examination Malpractice”. Daily  Star July 31, 1994 page 9

Alfa, J.S. and Adeoye, J.A. (1992) “Examination cheating Among College  Student”.

A case Study of Advanced Teachers College Ahmaadu Bello University (ATC-)

Kano Gana, Jery (1992) “The crash of Education Newswatch, April2, 1990.

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