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SLAVE TRADE: CAUSES, PROBLEMS AND ITS RESURGENCE IN THE 21ST CENTURY

CHAPTER ONE 1.3 INTRODUCTION Two hundred years after the abolition of the trans-Atlantic slave trade, the trafficking of Africans continues unabated. This is one of the most horrific violations of human right. The United Nations defines human trafficking as “the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of a person for the purpose of exploitation”. Reasons for trafficking humans include: sexual exploitation, forced labor and/or slavery, domestic servitude, forced marriages, illegal adoptions, and even forced organ removal or human sacrifice (UNEDO 2013). Slavery has historically been widespread in Africa, and still continues today in some countries. Systems of servitude and slavery were common in parts of Africa, as they were in much of the ancient world. In many African societies where slavery was prevalent, the enslaved people were not treated as chattel slaves and were given certain rights in a system similar to indentured servitude elsewhere in the world. When the Arab slave trade and Atlantic slave trade began, many of the local slave systems began supplying captives for slave markets outside Africa.Green, (2002) Slavery in historical Africa was practiced in many different forms: Debt slavery, enslavement of war captives, military slavery, and criminal slavery were all practiced in various parts of Africa. Bredans and Nathan, (2001) Slavery for domestic and court purposes was widespread throughout Africa. Plantation slavery also occurred primarily on the eastern coast of Africa and in parts of West Africa. The importance domestic plantation slavery increased during the 19th century due to the abolition of the Atlantic slave trade. Many African states dependent on the international slave trade reoriented their economies towards legitimate commerce worked by slave labor. Akani (1999) 1.4 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM 2 The problem of slavery is on the increase and the street following the increase is reverberating on the lives of the citizens, this therefore prompt many people in the society to ask why these human trades? Why Nigerians export human cargo abused in Europe, and other West African countries? Why Nigerians participate heavily in export of human cargo to other country for monetary gains. Nigeria has continued to defy solution. Recent media reports tend to portray Nigeria as the major hub for the illicit human trade (slave trade). Daily busts at the nation’s seaports, airports and borders give the impression that slave trade is an insolvable problem. Unfortunately, nothing has changed. This study seek to proffer solutions to the slave trade- causes-problems and it resurgence in the 21 century 1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES The main objective of this study was to examine the effect of slave trade: causes, problems and it resurgence in the 21 century while the specific objectives were to find out the nature of slave trade resurgences in Nigeria; to find out how the slave trade resurgences affects human rights in Nigeria and to find out how to manage slave trade in with a view of preserving human rights. 1.4 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF STUDY The project work seeks to concentrate on slave trade: causes, problems, abolition and it’s resurgence in the 21st century. It is inevitable that a survey research of this nature must have some constraints which impact on this study. Insufficiency in research funding reared its head to perhaps limit the researcher’s efforts and interest during typing, photocopying and binding processes. 1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY The significance of this study can be viewed from the following perspectives. One main significance of this study is that when completed, it would serve as a bridge for the gap that have been created between where previous works on this subject area stopped and today. This study is significant in the sense that it’s finding would serve as a base and framework for future researchers to carry out further studies in the field of knowledge under study. The government would benefit from this study in view of the fact that they would learn how efficacious rehabilitation in reaction, effectively and adequately implement this programme. The outcome of this research is hoped to be of immense use to students of education since it contains information on how to improve the well being of victims of slavery. The Non-Governmental Organisations (NGO’s) are not left out as beneficiaries of this research. They would benefit from the research findings given that this study permits top management to identify how this study can help curbing the menace of slavery. The significance of this study would include all those who would benefit from and use the information from the study like researchers or students of organizational behaviour, educational counseling and government agencies responsible for shortening the nuisance of slavery. 1.6 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

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