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ADEQUACY AND USABILITY OF PLAY AND LEARNING FACILITIES IN SELECTED NURSERY SCHOOLS IN UYO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
1.1 Background of the Study
Success in certain endeavours may be contingent upon certain factors. This may also be true of achievement in pupil’s academic achievement and performance. The role of play and learning facilities in Nursery schools has been an area of constant debate, and as well perceived in different dimensions. Most private nursery are therefore employing some learning and play facilities as a tool for competitive advantage to support the academic pursue of their pupils, (Aldertson, 2001).
Ikpe (2005) stated that each student has his own distinct potential and limitations. The extent of realization of his potentialities depends on the richness of the child’s environment, his initial interaction with his or her colleagues, and his later contact with them. Ojo (1997) noted that classroom climate is how learners interact among themselves during the teaching-learning process. Johnson (1988) observed that this has not yet received adequate attention by educational researchers, yet the way learners interact among themselves in the learning process has been found to have effect on the outcome of learning. Ojo (1992) observed that more emphasis is being placed on learning materials relative to how learners are organized in the learning process. Learning facilities according to Salawa and Sampson, (2002) advocates that availability of learning facilities in nursery schools is very pertinent to educational development both to the child who learn and to the educational system. A nursery school without sufficient learning facilities would produce low performance of their wards in class lessons. It becomes necessary for a teacher to prepare properly the selection of instructional facilities for teaching and learning.
Availability and adequate accommodation is needed for various units and sectors and for various purposes. These should always be appropriate and adequate accommodation for every unit. For instance academic section of the school need accommodation as teachers, class attendant and proprietors/principals offices, libraries, rest rooms lecture theatres, lecture rolls, lecture rooms, assembly hall, lecture hall, etc, the non-teaching unit of the school and accommodation for medical centre, work department, general office, security and other section.
Another learning facility that equally affects pupil’s performance is Instructional materials. Instructional materials have been defined by various authors. For example, Obanya (1989) viewed them as didactic materials thing which are supposed to make learning and teaching possible. According to Abdullahi (2002), instructional materials are materials or tools locally made or imported that could made tremendous enhancement of lesson impact if intelligently used. (Isola, 2010) referred to them as objects or devices, which help the teacher to make a lesson much clearer to the learner. Instructional materials are also described as concrete or physical objects which provide sound, visual or both to the sense organs during teaching (Agina-obu, 2005). Instructional materials are in various classes, such as audio or aural, visual or audiovisual.
Play facilities are those spaces areas in which a physical education class or sporting activities may be of held or conducted. They may be indoors or outdoors. Indoor sports facilities refer to those ones stationed inside a hall or a gymnasium, while outdoor facilities are those ones positioned outside the four walls of a classroom. Poor facilities may be found in public places such as recreation parks, the sports council and the stadium, while private ones may found in schools, churches or individual homes. Sports facilities found in nursery schools in Uyo Local Government Area include football fields, open playgrounds, grass lawns, halls which are found indoors and used for dancing and other rhythmic activities.
Furthermore, Whitworth (2004) emphasizes that the athletics track develops in the child a sense of kinesthetic or sense of movement. Pupils also gain satisfaction from performing gymnastics well and this provides values with appreciable effect in the mind and body. It increases agility, body coordination and flexibility and help in the development of physical fitness. It also keeps the mind alert for academic programmes. It develops a sense of daring, courage, fearlessness, initiative and self confidence. The absence of these sporting facilities may handicap the learners from developing different manipulative and cognitive abilities for his academic performance.
It is against this background that this research work is conducted to make assessment of examine of adequacy and usability of play and learning facilities in selected nursery schools in Uyo local government area of Akwa Ibom State.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In spite of the pupils performance in both internal e.g. terminal and promotional examinations and external examinations e.g. Common Entrance Examination (CEC) and other entrance examination into post primary schools more is expected to be done to asses the adequacy and usability of play and learning facilities and their proportional effects on wards.
Based on the aforementioned, problem of this study is to make assessment of examine of adequacy and usability of play and learning facilities in some select nursery schools in Uyo local government.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The purpose of the study is to investigate the assessment of adequacy and usability of play and learning facilities in some select nursery schools in Uyo local government. Specifically, the study sought to:
- Examine the relationship between availability of outdoor play facilities on the pupil’s usability in some selected nursery school.
- Examine the relationship between availability of indoor play facilities on the pupil’s usability in some selected nursery school.
- Examine the relationship between factors militating against effective maintenance of play facilities on the pupil’s usability in some selected nursery school.
1.3 Research Questions
- What is the relationship between availability of outdoor play facilities on the pupil’s usability in some selected nursery school?
- What is the relationship between availability of indoor play facilities on the pupil’s usability in some selected nursery school?
- What is the relationship between factors militating against effective maintenance of play facilities on the pupil’s usability in some selected nursery school?
- 1. There is no significant relationship between availability of outdoor play facilities on the pupil’s usability in some selected nursery school.
- There is no significant relationship between availability of indoor play facilities on the pupil’s usability in some selected nursery school.
- There is no significant relationship between factors militating against effective maintenance of play facilities on the pupil’s usability in some selected nursery school.
1.5 Significance of the Study
The findings of this study would be of benefits to students and teachers, business education curriculum developers, educational administrators, government policy makers, vocational counselors and researchers.
Teachers would benefit from the finding of the study which would enable teachers to adjust their behaviours in order to affect the learning process in positive ways, thus increasing pupils academic interest.
The findings of the study would open up areas that the business education curriculum experts would have to emphasis on, in order to improve the teaching and learning in the nursery/primary level.
The findings would also be useful to government in formulating purposeful goals that are oriented towards improving the environmental variables and learning facilities in the academic society and would boost.
1.6 Delimitation of the Study
The study was delimited to adequacy and usability of play and learning facilities in some select nursery schools in Uyo local government. The scopes of the study were: availability and adequate instructional materials, availability and adequate accommodation, availability of sport facilities and availability of equipped library.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
It is inevitable that a survey research of this nature must have some constraints which impact on this study. The study was limited strictly to selected nursery schools in Uyo local government area. Insufficiency in research funding reared its head to perhaps limit the researcher’s efforts and interest during typing, photocopying and binding processes.
The dearth of materials for a proper and effective research work constituted a major limitation. Again, how to get the true and required information from the teachers/pupils through questionnaire also constituted a constraint in the study.
To this end, there was the problem of convincing the teachers/pupils on the primary objectives of the questionnaire so as to give the true and required information. However, the intervention of the class teachers in the schools who took time to clear the air and convince his pupils helped the investigator to administer the instrument successfully.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Accommodation: With regards to the contents of this study, accommodation is adequate space in the school for the purpose of teaching and non teaching activities of the pupils.
Equipment/ Facilities: With regards to the contents of this study, this is the recreational facilities found in nursery schools like plants, busses machine, and others.
Sports Facilities: With regards to the contents of this study, these are either places provided for play or materials or objects for physical education activities.
Academic Performances: With regards to the contents of this study, this is the display of knowledge attained or skills developed and examination scores or marks assigned by the subject teachers.