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ASSESSMENT OF IMPLEMENTATION OF NATIONAL COMMISSION FOR COLLEGES OF EDUCATION NIGERIA CERTIFICATE IN EDUCATION SOCIAL STUDIES MINIMUM STANDARDS
1.9 Background to the Study
Education is a human right as proclaimed in article 26 of Universal Declaration Of Human Rights, as a key to building up individual capacities as well as increasing their skills that are necessary for techno-economic development and as a means for hopefully addressing some of the pressing societal issues.It has been accepted by developed nations as the most potent tool to achieve their goals. This is one cogent reason why nations all over the world expand much of their resources on education (Kazeem and Ige, 2010). Education in its broadest sense provides the backdrop against which development achieves its meaning. Nigerian governmentis not oblivious of this critical need for balanced and sustainable human and national development. Hence, her position which is clearly articulated in the Federal Republic of Nigeria, National Policy on Education (2014); that any existing contradictions, ambiguities, and lack of uniformity in educational practice in the different parts of the federation should be removed to facilitate an orderly development of the country.
The Nigeria of one‟s dream is one that is “free and democratic, just and egalitarian, united, strong and self-reliant; with a great and dynamic economy, and above all, a land full of bright opportunities for all the citizens”. These national goals also underlie the philosophical ideals of Nigerian education of which teacher educationis one concrete manifestation (FRN, 2014). The teacher is the kingpin of quality in education. Since education has become the primary tool for the overall development, of society, teacher education has to occupy a position of pre-eminence in the planning and organization of modern society. This in turn
demands that the Nigerian people and government make both teaching and teacher education a very attractive professional pursuit.
According to Federal Republic of Nigeria (FGN) (2012), curriculum implementation framework for Nigeria certificate in education,the mission of teacher education in Nigeria should, among others, include: production of well-motivated teachers with high personal and professional discipline, integrity and competence for all levels of the educational system; preparation of teachers with appreciable expertise in curriculum planning, development and delivery, as well as competence in production of professionals who can combine the use of conventional teaching strategies and worlds‟ unfolding ICT in the generation and imparting of knowledge, attitudes and skills; continuous preparation and upgrading of teachers who can stand out for their professional competence, sense of social responsibility and commitment, to function effectively as constructive socio-economic, moral and spiritual change agents needed to promote goodwill, peace and progress not only in the country but also in the world of the 21st century (FGN, NCCE, 2012, pg. 9).
The NCE programme being a major sector of teacher education, generally aims at producing teachers with high personal and professional discipline and integrity, teachers who are dedicated with appropriate knowledge, skills and attitudes that would facilitate easy achievement of the national goals. This is all the more important when one notes that the government‟s decision that NCE shall ultimately be the minimum entry qualification into the teaching profession in Nigeria. More importantly, with the signing into law of the Universal Basic Education act in 2004, production of specialist teachers for all the levels of Basic Education becomes imperative. This is why the NCCE has produced minimum standards specifically designed for the implementation of courses of NCE programmes and for teacher
education training institutions in the country. The National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE) provides the minimum standards for implementation of courses taught in NCE awarding institutions across the country. The agency supervises, accredits and reviews teacher education programmes, the minimum standards contains guidelines for the training of teacher educators and defines the minimum the educators should be able to do as well as their dispositions towards their work.
According to Ibrahim (2015), the goals of wealth creation, employment generation, poverty reduction and value re-orientation can effectively be pursued, attained and sustained only through an efficient, relevant and functional educational system. In Nigeria, education is viewed as an instrument for transforming individuals, communities and the nation and a mechanism for skills acquisition required for societal survival and growth. Education is the only instrument for social reconstruction where a social order characterized by such values as integrity, morality, creativity, industry and self-reliance are envisaged.(Fwang‟le, 2015). Being a medium for social security, education enables people to understand their immediate environment and the world in general. This invariably enables them to improve the quality of their lives. Quality education at all levels: primary, secondary and tertiary is desired all Nigerians. At the colleges of education levels, quality education is absolutely necessary because that is where NCCE education minimum standards are implemented with the goals of producing highly motivated, conscientious and efficient classroom teachers for all levels of Nigeria educational system.
the national aims and objectives of education in Nigeria have sufficiently proposed an effective social education that inculcates desired attitudes, values, skills, abilities, competencies and knowledge for the survival of the individual, the Nigerian society and the world around. This is coming from the backdrop that Nigeria, as most African countries since independence, has its primary focus at overhauling the then existing colonial policies on education. Education is and is still being regarded as the prime mover of development and eradication of social ills and indiscipline. It is believed that changing educational policies and structure would create nationalistic citizens and bring overall development. The change from colonialism to nationhood necessitated a new form of education and a new general school curriculum. To meet the societal needs for functionality and relevance, a new Social Studies curriculum emerged.Functionality, relevance and quality became issues in education at independence to address many societal problems like ethnicity instability, boundary disputes, religious intolerance, large scale poverty, ignorance, squalor and diseases. Leaders were concerned that there should exist a functional and qualitative social education that would help minimize, if not eradicate the social ills.
To actualize the national aims and objectives, the following philosophy of NCE Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE) Social Studies curriculum which is to instill in the students, the basic knowledge, desirable values and skills for investigating, analyzing and explaining the interrelationships of man and his complex relationships with the world around and beyond was developed. The National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE, 2009) stated that Social Studies programme is designed with the objectives of producing teachers who are both professionally committed and academically competent in its philosophy, content and methodology. Towards this end, the NCE Social Studies minimum standards is designed with the following objectives to;
- produce professionally and academically competent NCE social studies teachers for the basic 1-9 schools;
- prepare teachers who will inculcate in their pupils rational adjustment to their physical and social environment through acquisition of knowledge, attitudes and values, appreciation and skills necessary for developing social and civic responsibilities; and
- produce students who are capable of benefitting from further education in social studies and related areas (NCCE, 2009)
The implementation of the NCCE, NCE Social Studies minimum standards in colleges of education over the years has left much to be desired. As a subject which is supposed to meet the societal needs for functionality and relevance, and to make its learners competent in correcting and solving the ills of the society, they have rather become victims and perpetrators of ills like, disrespect, indecent dressing, dishonesty, disdain for manual labour, examinationmalpractice, sexual abuse, religious intolerance, ignorance, ethnicity, amongst others. This is because colleges of education has failed to adhere strictly to the variables of admission/ graduation requirements, instructional materials, pedagogy methods, evaluation strategies physical facilities personnel and supervision as specified in the minimum standards.Lack of strict adherence have contributed to poor implementation of the Social Studiesminimum standards leading to poor performance which also reflects in their behaviors after leaving school.
As noted by Okam (2008), there is an indication that Social Studieseducation has not been properly implemented in schools and colleges to equip learners with necessary knowledge, facts and ideas that enhance positive values and attitudes for survival of individuals and society, that is why social problems ranging from disrespect to elders and constituted authorities, chronic dishonesty, corruption, religious crises, ethnic/tribal crises, murder, arson examination malpractice, drug abuse, cultism, indiscipline and other forms of maladapted behaviours has be-devilled the Nigerian society.From the foregoing it is evident that, the nature of this discrepancy had not been established for effective intervention strategies to be put in place. Hence, the need for this study which is set out to determine possible reasons for the assumed discrepancy between the stated objectives of teachingsocial studiesin colleges of education of students that do not reflect the acquisition of what social studies intends to achieve in colleges of education in Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Social Studies as an academic programme was introduced to the Nigerian educational system with the aim of inculcating positive values and building a better Nigeria and to help learners develop the ability to adapt to the ever-changing environment through the acquisition of relevant knowledge, attitudes, values and practical skills. It was designed into the national curriculum of schools and colleges to provide functional social education to Nigerian children and youths. The programme is expected to make good citizens and patriots out of youths of Nigeria. All the above could be possible only when there is effective curriculum implementation in schools and colleges; particularly in Colleges of Education where the NCCE Social Studies minimum standards operate but unfortunately, the implementation seems to be faced with a lot of challenges which have resultedin exhibition of certain societal problems by the youths.
Okam (2008) noted that there is an indication thatsocial studieseducation has not been properly implemented in schools to equip learners with the necessary knowledge, facts and ideas that can enhance positive values and attitudes for the survival of individuals and the society. Thatis why social problems ranging from disrespect to elders and constituteauthorities, chronic dishonesty, corruption, religious crises, ethnic tribal crises, murder, arson, examination malpractice, drug abuse, cultism, indiscipline and other forms of maladaptive behaviourswhich have bedeviled the Nigerian society.The manner in which educational policies are implemented determines the successor otherwise of such policies. No matter how well articulated the philosophy and objectives of a curriculum are, how well selected and organized the content may be, if all that is required for the implementation are not properly met, all the efforts may have been a waste of time. These issues call for concern and adequate attention. The problem of this study is therefore on the extent to which Colleges of Education in North-west geo-political zone of Nigeria comply with the requirement for the implementation ofsocial studies minimum standards.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of the study is to assess the implementation of National Commission for Colleges of Education Nigeria Certificate in Education Social Studies minimum standards in colleges of education. The specific objectives are to:
- examine thestate of adherence to prescribed admission requirements in implementing NCCE, NCE the social studies minimum standards by colleges of education in north-west geo-political zone of Nigeria,
- assess the availability and adequacy of instructional materials for implementation of NCCE, NCE social studies minimum standards in colleges of education in north-west geo-political zone of Nigeria,
- ascertain the pedagogical methods used by lecturers in implementing the NCCE, NCE social studies minimum standards colleges of education in north-west geo-political zone of Nigeria,
- determine the appropriateness of the evaluation strategies used by lecturers in implementing the NCCE, NCE social studies minimum standards in colleges of education north-west geo-political zone of Nigeria,
- findout the adequacy and availability of physical facilities/equipments for the implementation of NCCE, NCE social studies minimum standards in colleges of education north-west geo-political zone of Nigeria; and
- determine the supervisory roles of quality assurance officers in implementation of NCCE, NCE social studies minimum standards in colleges of education in north-west geo-political zone of Nigeria.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions guided the study:
- what is the extent of adherence to prescribed admission requirements in implementation of NCCE, NCE Social Studies minimum standards by colleges of education in north-west geo-political zone of Nigeria?
- to what extent are the instructional materials for the implementation of NCCE, NCE Social Studies minimum standards available and adequate in colleges of education in north-west geo-political zone of Nigeria?
- what are the pedagogical methods used by lecturers in implementing the NCCE, NCE social studies minimum standards in colleges of education in north-west geo-political zone of Nigeria?
- are the evaluation strategies used by lecturers appropriate for implementing the NCCE, NCE social studies minimum standards in colleges of education in north-west geo-political zone of Nigeria?
- to what extent are physical facilities/equipment‟s adequate and available for the implementation of NCCE, NCE social studies minimum standards in colleges of education in north-west geo-political zone of Nigeria?
- in what ways do the quality assurance officers supervise the implementation of NCCE social studies minimum standards in colleges of education in north-west geo-political zone of Nigeria?
The following hypotheses were formulated and tested in the study:
H01: There is no significant difference in thestate ofadherence to prescribed admission requirements and the standards required forimplementation of NCCE NCEsocial studies minimum standards by colleges of education in north-west geo-political zone of Nigeria.
H02: There is no significant difference in the availability and adequacy of instructional materials and standards required in implementation of NCCE NCE social studies minimum standards in colleges of education in north-west geo-political zone of Nigeria;
H03: There is no significant difference in the pedagogical methods used by social studieslecturers and standards required for the implementation of NCCE, NCE social studies minimum standards in colleges of education in north-west geo-political zone of Nigeria;
H04: There is no significant difference in evaluation strategies used and standards required for the effective implementation of NCCE, NCE social studies minimum standards in colleges of education in north-west geo-political zone of Nigeria
H05: There is no significant difference inthe available number of physical facilities/equipment‟s and the standards required for the effective implementation of NCCE, NCE social studies minimum standards in colleges of education in north-west geo-political zone of Nigeria; and
H06: There is no significant difference in the supervisory roles of quality assurance officers and standards required for the implementation of NCCE, NCE social studies minimum standards in colleges of education in north-west geo-political zone of Nigeria.
1.6 Basic Assumptions
The study was based on the following assumptions:
- Social Studies minimum standards for colleges of education isplanned, designed, developed and distributed by National Commission for Colleges of Education.
- Relevant instructional materials for proper implementation of NCCE, NCE Social Studies minimum standards in Colleges of Education are in short supply and in bad shape.
- Implementation of NCCE, NCESocial Studies minimum standards has no effects on behaviour of students in colleges of education due to gross shortages of qualified staff.
- Prescribed standards for result oriented Social Studies minimum standards in colleges of education are not observed.
- Proper methods of teaching in the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains of students are not largely applied in colleges of education.
- Relevant and adequate evaluation strategies are not put to use to ascertain learning outcomes in line with the objectives of social studies education in colleges of education.
1.7 Significance of the Study
This study will be significant to all stake holders in education, specifically, teachers, students, government, curriculum planners and developers,researchers and National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE) as it will provide them with information regarding the extent to which Social Studies NCCE minimum standards are being implemented in colleges of education in creating the effective Nigeria citizen as envisaged in the national policy on education.
The study will benefit Social Studies lecturers in colleges of education who are the implementers of NCCE social studies minimum standards by realizing their roles in effective Implementation of social studies content and how best to implement the social studies curriculum with a view to achieving the objectives of social studies education. The outcome of the research will assist social studies students in colleges of education as to the values and value-characteristics including the attitudes evoked from them and which they are expected to display as prospective citizens designed to operate effectively within the social framework of a young democracy such as Nigeria, it is likely that an awareness amongst students accruing from the results of this study will help them come to terms about what it takes to build a healthy society through classroom exposure to a requisite curriculum context as provided in social studiesminimum standards.
Curriculum planners will find the results useful as information regarding teaching and learning will be gotten and also to make necessary inclusion as it regardssocial studies at NCE level in colleges of education and other teacher education institutions. The study will also assist curriculum specialists with the right type of information regarding selection of appropriate educational resources and teaching methodology, facilities required and implementation strategies in social studies and also determine evaluation strategies among others. Ministries of education will use the results to organize conferences, workshops and seminars to sensitize and retrain social studiesteachers particularly on curriculum implementation. The government will also use the results for planning and executing programmes. Colleges of education will use the findings in reviewing their programme objectives and be up-to-date in their responsibilities of training of would-be-teachers for maximum service delivery in schools. The study also provides opportunity for education stakeholders to identify the lapses in social studiescurriculum implementation so that predicaments can be addressed to make the subject achieve like cases recorded in America and Britain. The study will offer National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE) opportunity to monitor operational activities of colleges of education under their jurisdiction as they implement the minimum standards and to ensure conformity with international best practices as far as school supervision is concerned, the outcome will open up-opportunities for training and retraining of personnel associated with implementation of social studies minimum standards in colleges of education. it will also provide feedback that will lead to improvement on the minimum standards; quality assurance officials which involves external supervisors will benefit greatly from this research work, the quality control officials who are responsible for ensuring the effective supervisions of implementation at Colleges of Educations will benefit from the data collected from the research as findings will help them improve on their assignment. Finally, the study will serve as a reference material for researchers interested in the area of assessment of NCCE minimum standards, it will also
provide a spring-board from which similar areas of study would be looked into, and also stimulate research interest in the areas concerned.
1.8 Scope of the Study
The scope of the study is delimited to assessment of implementation of national commission for colleges of education NCCE NCE minimum standards in social studies among colleges of education in Nigeria, specifically the study will be limited to north-west geo political zone of Nigeria, comprising of Jigawa, Kano, Kaduna, Katsina, Kebbi, Sokoto and Zamfara states respectively, samples were drawn from Federal College of Education, Kano, Federal College of Education, Zaria, Shehu Shagari College of Education,Sokoto and College of Education, Maru Zamfara State. The research is concerned with the extent to which social studies minimum standards is implemented in colleges of education with reference to admission requirements, availability and adequacy of instructional materials, pedagogical methods, availability and adequacy of physical facilities andappropriateness of evaluation strategies/ techniques used by the lecturers. The research is delimited to social studies lecturers and NCE II social studies students in the sampled colleges of education of 2016/2017 academic session.