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AVAILABILITY OF UNIVERSITY RESOURCES AND ADMINISTRATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF UNIVERSITY ADMINISTRATORS IN FEDERAL UNIVERSITIES IN SOUTH-SOUTH GEO-POLITICAL ZONE
1.1 Background of the Study
Educational administration particularly of the university involves the interpretation of policy and translating them into executive actions. It sets educational standards and a goal establishes the policies and procedures required to achieved them. However, it is the responsibility of educational administrators and manager to implement these functions. Administrators expected to give appropriate academic and administrative leaderships in their respective departments. The nature of their daily role performance is influenced by the present state of our universities and other tertiary institutions. The University system in Nigeria is characterized by “status anomaly and squalor” specifically defined in terms of over-crowded lecture halls, overcrowded student hostels, absence of lecture halls; to the ill-equipped departmental offices; faulty block of buildings without toilet facilities; and absence of meaningful staff development programme.
Students trained predominantly under theoretical teaching-learning situations even in those courses that require specialized equipment, workshops and tools. The atmosphere for skill training in the relevant progammes is very negligible because where the workshops and/or
equipment are once installed; they may not always be functional. The school system in Nigeria is characterized by large class sizes, inadequate qualified teachers, few instructional aids, old and unpainted school buildings with leaking roofs, insufficient classrooms and staff offices, ill equipped science laboratories, poorly equipped engineering workshops, inadequate staff development, examination malpractice and unmotivated workforce.
Effective performance of the various roles by different professionals in the University system toward its goal attainment efforts call for the acquisition of relevant plant, equipment, facilities and a crop of highly qualified and experienced personnel (both teaching and non- teaching). According to the Federal Government of Nigeria, resources may take the form of fixed and enabling assets like funds, land, movable and immovable assets.
The major categories of input variables as physical/capital inputs and institutional environment. Physical and capital inputs include land, bindings, furniture, equipment, computers, libraries and other materials. Institutional environment, on the other hand, includes goals, curriculum, facilities, teaching techniques, examination procedures, and others (p.281). These inputs are considered as investments made in the University settings with the expectation that they will produce “returns” that will then be termed “outputs”. “Another set of school inputs were those put forward by Glasman and Biniaminor (1981) in Akpan (2011). Their school inputs had two sub-categories as school conditions and instructional personnel. School conditions include three groups of variables: services, expenditures, and staff. Other factors are library, class size, school facilities, budget level, size and turnover of staff, staff salaries an administrative policy. On its own, instructional personnel includes three groups of variables: lectures’ background and personal characteristics, lecture assignments and lecture attitudes. Other factors include interaction, educational lecturer, qualifications, race, gender, and job satisfaction level (p.281).
It is also identified that five classes of University facilities to be:
- Buildings comprising classrooms, offices, workshops, market complexes, recreational facilities, laboratories, libraries, sick bay or the infirmary, the sports complex;
- Land on which buildings are erected;
- Equipment installed in these buildings to enhance functions;
- Machines vehicles, furniture and
- Consumables and recycled materials (p.279).
Commenting on diagnostic analysis of Universities facilities, it is believed that an inventory of current facilities is always necessary bearing in mind their present conditions, adequacy or inadequacy in line with the particular group(s) of students one is handling.
Number of classrooms and average space per-class;
Lecture theatres capacity;
Halls and auditorium capacity and present condition;
Recreational facilities of sports of sports and games;
Halls of residence-number and capacity
Staff offices-number, capacity and furniture;
Vehicles and plants-number and present conditions;
Libraries workshops, laboratories-present capacity and conditions;
Available teaching and learning aids-their conditions, relevance and adequacy;
Kitchen facilities, where applicable; and
Welfare facilities, infirmary, eateries, modern communication equipment like computers, internet and intercom facilities (p, 283) .
Availability of adequate office accommodation, adequate equipment / facilities, staff adequacy in both qualification and quantity and availability of library facilities in all section and department of the universities. Money is the one single factor that keeps every organization alive and active. No institution or organization can carry on its daily function except there is adequate provision made for the payment of necessary bills and expenses the University of the 21st century is a complex organization and comprised of hundreds of staff employees and thousands of students. The other peculiarity of the universities which calls for more funding is the quest for science and technology which necessitates the introduction for various technological and scientific programmes which animal at producing skilled and trained manpower for the various sector of the economy. Putting on bindings, equipping than with relevant machines, plants, tools and facilities call for billions of Naira. Next to the capital expenditure of acquiring land, putting up needed bloodies for building for various uses is the high salary wage bill of the various universities which runs into billions monthly. Monthly salary is always paid on time just as the month ends or employees may protect or down tools.
Accommodation is needed for various units and sector and for various purposes. These should always be appropriate and adequate accommodation for every unit. For instance academic section of the universities need Accommodation as lecturers and HODs offices, libraries, rest rooms lecture theatres, lecture rolls, lecture rooms, assembly hall, lecture hall, etc, the non-teaching unit of the university and accommodation for medical centre, work department, students” affairs, registry, university, security and other section. The case of equipment and facilities in the universities need not to be war stressed while accommodation provide a building and an empty space, equipment and facilities fills the room/ space will necessary appliances, tools, machines, for work to go on it is the duty of facilities e.g. Air conditioner to help provide a convenient and comfortable working environment. The university is an establishment that deals with knowledge and knowledge-based product. The present interest age has reduced the world to the global village thought the service of the internet. University library hard copies (normal textbooks, journals. Etc.) and soft internet e- collections, otherwise called virtual library. Virtual library should provide access to current books journals and other information services held by global network of on-line libraries. It should provide permanent access to shared digital archival collections. These services are to be made available in the universities for teaching, research and learning to be effective. The need to recruit qualified and experience manpower is vital for both administrative and lecturing positions. There is need to provide the number of staff for every group lecturer should be many enough to match the every large of student admitted these days and administrative personnel should provided as need.
It is the duty of top management of the university to resources by allocating available human and material resources in such a coordinated manner that the objective of the institution is achieved. Resourcing in educational management is planning the best way to use and manage available resources especially at system level Administrative effectiveness seems related to the system approach to educational administration which take a comprehensively wide look at envisaged problems and their ramifications as well as their implications for related parts of the university in such a manner as to ensure the effectiveness of the system and goal attainment. The duty university administrators, therefore, is to work with available men, money and materials in daily bass in teaching and non- teaching capacities towards the production of skilled manpower for the nation.
Administrative effectiveness seems to refer to managing for results. A result-oriented leader may be described as one who is able to achieve the objectives of his/her organization without spending too much of the resources school administrator are therefore in charge of everything. For instance, the administrator is instructional leader, the personal manager for both student and staff personnel, and he/she is also the finance and physical facilities manager. The American Association of school Administrator identified the major competence area of school administration to be community relations, personnel administration, curriculum and instructional development, financial administration and school plant management. InNigeriaeducational system, these areas largely represent the task areas of school administrators at both the lower and the tertiary levels of education. Thus, the administrative effectiveness of university administrators is measured through these task areas. Ogobodo contends that the effectiveness of the administrator is measured through the competence or the extent to which institutional goals are attained and expected results achieved. Other effectiveness area of university administrators could include staff motivation, nature or style of leadership, interrelationships, level of involvement and communication, introduction and application of information technology in the day-to-day administrative duties of university governance.
It appears that there is a relationship between availability of university resources and administrative effectiveness of university administrators. The nature and form of the emerging relationship that has to do with this study is that availability of university resources is directly related to administrative effectiveness of university administrator in south-south geo-political zone of Nigeria. If the level of university resources availability is high, university resources (e.g. Inadequate, dysfunctional or outright non-availability), then university administrators are likely to be less effective on their administrative tasks.
The observations made for this study report on the deficient state of university resources as they influence and affect the exercise of teaching, learning and research in the universities. It is concluded that the poor resource position in the universities, among other factors, can contribute to the poor quality of graduates produced by the universities in the recent years. The gap that this study is out to fill is complementary to the teaching aspect studied already-it is to determine how the present availability and use of resources in our universities influence the administrative effectiveness of university managers and hence the quality of our graduates.