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BOKO HARAM INSURGENCY AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF NORTH EASTHERN NIGERIA
(A) Background to the Study
About a decade ago, the name “Boko Haram” will have sounded like a Latin expression in the ears of the world. Today, however, the consciousness and consciences of the world is alerted and stained by the activities of Boko Haram in Nigeria mostly and some of her neighbours. The bombing of the United Nations building in Abuja in July, 2009 and the abduction of over 200 Chibok School Girls in Chibok Local Government in 2014 clearly shows the sophistication and strength of Boko Haram.
Boko Haram is a Hausa word translated to mean “Western Education is a sin”. The group which is mostly Nigerian is believed to have links and received finding from AI-Qa’ Ida. Boko Haram is a terrorist organization, this fast was acknowledged by the United States Department of State in November, 2013. States affected are mostly Bornu, Yobe and Adamawa. However, the entire North Eastern part of Nigeria has suffered from his insurgent activities. For instance, Ohiwerei (2014) observes that economic prosperity, political stability, agricultural activities, geo-strategic sustainability, energy security and education advancement of the North eastern part of Nigeria is being compromised by Boko Haram indulgently that originally took the form of sectarian religious violence has escalated into terrorist activities with international link ages affiliations making it s relatively difficult nut for the Nigerian Government to crack (Gilbert, 2014). Consequently, Nigeria has not known face for about half a decade now. The emergent of the fundamentalist Islamic sect, has led to the fight for safety and security of most Nigerians residing in the North task, especially Christians. Since the commencement of the terrorist operations of the sect, they have adopted several methods to unleash terror on the people. And most states of Northern Nigeria have experience their distantly activities, but the worst his has been Bornu, Adamawa, Bauchi, FCT (Abuja), Kaduna, Kano, Plateau and Yobe (Nwakaudu, 2012). Nigeria as a country is blessed with abundant natural resources, but the people are poor, many extremely so, since returning to civilian rule in 1999.The state has suffered growing security capacity and legitimacy gaps, demonstrated in the declining capacity it is institutions to deliver public goods including security, transportation, water, medical care, power and education (NAN, 2011).
Crisis Group Agency Report (CGAR), 2006 opines that bad governance, sustained economic hardship, rising inequality and social frustration are fostering the growth of radical extremist groups. The disturbing trend of Boko Haram have also been attributed to political dissatisfaction, ethnic and religious differences, perceived societal neglect and persuasive poverty among the people. For instance, youth restiveness in the Niger Delta Area and parts of the south task manifested in kidnapping and disruption of oil installations and activities of members of the Odua Peoples Congress (OPC) in the south west and that of Boko Haram in the Northern state have been worrisome since 1999. The trend of dornestid terrorism in the country, especially with activities of the dreaded Islamic sect popularly known as Boko Haram has become a major concern for both the Nigerian stakeholders in the country has offered suggestions on the need to check the new security challenges posed by the dreaded Islamic sect in particular in the country. The in human activities of the sect, have unsettled the Nigerian nation to the extent that ample time and socio-economic can political resources that ought to have been channeled to the development of the entire country is being wasted on various efforts geared towards checkmating and possibly, annihilating the insurgency in the North East geopolitical zone of Nigeria. It is against this backdrop that this research seeks to critically examine the Boko Haram insurgency group and how it affects the socio-economic development of North Easter in Nigeria.
B. Objective of the Study
The broad objective of this research is to examine the challenges posed by Boko Haram insurgency on the Nigerian economy and the lesson derivable therefore specific objectives include:
i. To examine the factors that encourages the growth and spread of Boko Haram sect.
ii. To critically evaluate government effort in addressing the issues associated with insurgency in Nigeria.
iii. To analyze the implication of Boko Haram insurgence to the economic development of Nigeria.
iv. To proffer useful recommendations to curbing Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria.
C. Significance of the Study
(i) It contributes to the existing literatures on the subject matter by updating new facts about the activities of BokoHaram.
(ii) It will aid in broadening students and the general public’s understanding on the activities of Boko Haram and the need to eradicate them.
(iii) Recommendation from the study are expected to be useful for policy formulation for economic development and consciousness on good military strategies to combat the insurgency.
D. Scope/Organization of the Study
The scope of this study centres around the North eastern part of Nigeria, particularly, Borno, Adamawa and Yobe states and how the activities of Boko Haram from 2009 when they assumed prominence to 2015 affected the economy of the North in particular, and that of Nigeria in general. One of the major limitations in carrying out a research as this is that information on the subject matter particularly from secondary data is inexhaustible. Again, insecurity in the area under study a serious threat to life, specifically for someone who is not too familiar with the area, hence, hinder the researcher from getting access to those affected.