Every material on this site is authentic and was extracted from the complete available project.Click to GET IT NOW
MS-WORD DOC || CHAPTERS: 1-5 || PAGES: 72 || PRICE: ₦3000
CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN UYO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Education is a veritable tool in which the student develops him/her as well as contributes meaningfully to the society. Sharing the same viewpoint, Fafunwa (1974) as cited in Ogbodo, Etuk and Afangideh (2013) submit that education is the aggregate of all the process by which a child or young adult develops abilities, attitudes and other forms of behaviour which are positive value to the society in which he lives. Therefore, proper educational system equips students with necessary skills, aptitudes and positive values that would facilitate their meaningful contribution to the society far better than they met it.
Nevertheless, sustained development of the student as well as the society does not just evolve. It inevitably requires a synergy among the teachers, optimal learning environment and the students. Such synergistic relationship ensures that teachers bring the right skills, equipment, materials and information together at the right time and in the right place (Ogbodo, Etuk and Afangideh, 2013). These features are all couched in effective classroom management practices. Corroborating this assertion, Marzano, Pickering and Pollack (2001) submit, to effectively teach their students, teachers need to employ effective behaviour management strategies, implement effective instructional strategies, and develop a strong curriculum. Having the same view as Marzano, Pickering and Pollack (2001), Walker (2009) opined, the best teachers don’t simply teach content, they teach people.
The concept of classroom management practices has not been homogenized among academic scholars due to some reasons. Notably among them are the diverse studies on the concept, leading to a more narrowed, contextual definition of the concept. Yet, concerted efforts have been made to clearly define the concept. According to Sunday-Piaro (2018), the concept classroom management practices refers to the action and direction a teacher takes to create a successful learning environment, having a positive impact on the students’ performance, given learning requirements and goals. Elsewhere, McCreary (2010) defined classroom management practices as the methods and strategies an educator uses to maintain a classroom environment that is conducive to student success and learning. Despite the varied definitional viewpoint on classroom management practices, there are still points of agreement among the scholars. Such agreement lies on their consensus of the objective of every classroom management practices. Within that continuum are phrases such as ‘having a positive impact on students’ academic performance’ and ‘to maintain a classroom environment that is conducive to students’ success and learning’. Thus, classroom management practices, as succinctly described by Saifi, Hussain and Bakht (2018), alludes to every one of the things that a teacher does to compose students, space, time, and materials with the goal that students’ learning can occur.
Discipline, quality of the teacher and the teachers reward system are constructs of classroom management practices. According to Sunday-Piaro (2018), discipline is one of the key variables of classroom management practices. Ada (2004) defined discipline as a function of the interaction between teacher and student that bring about self-control and respect for authourity. It involves establishing and keeping rules based on the reciprocal understanding between the teacher and the student which must not breached. In the same vein, Sunday-Piaro (2018) contend that a qualified teacher is one that has passed the Teacher Registration Council of Nigeria (TRCN) professional qualifying examination. A qualified and professional teacher that is armed with the necessary classroom management skills are more likely to be proactive in resolving conflict in the classroom, thereby eliciting a better school environment that is conducive for learning. On teachers reward system, Effanga (2013) in Ogbodo, Etuk and Afangideh (2013) opined that students come to school with different desires and expectations. The objective of the teacher, therefore, should be proper and positive channeling of these desires and drives towards better students’ academic performance.
Accordingly, students’ academic performance is a concept that has gained increased momentum recently. This is not just because of the increased concern on the performance of students in most public examinations but because of its importance in the field of education. Sunday-Piaro (2018) sees students’ academic performance as a concept used to qualify the observable manifestation of knowledge, skill, understanding and ideas. According to Fadipe (2000), it is the outcome of both quality and quantity of internal and external objectives accomplished. The concept of students’ academic performance has been often measured using different parameters. Such parameters as identified by Sunday-Piaro (2018) include: previous educational outcomes, socio-economic status of the parents, parents’ educational background, self-effort and self-motivation of students, learning preferences, standard and type of educational institution the student attend, and the schools in which they study. Yet, there are different views in past studies on which of these parameters dominantly predict students’ academic performance. For instance, Durden and Ellis (1995) contend that the measurement of student’s previous educational outcome is the most prominent, while Graetz (1995) and Considine and Zappala (2000) were of the view that socio-economic status of the parents and school environment and teachers expectation from their students respectively influences students’ academic performance.
Past studies on the effect of classroom management practices on students’ academic performance is well documented. Finding from such study indicate that between the first 3years to 5years of a teacher’s career, which is often considered to be the toughest year of their profession, 30% of teachers abandon the profession and nearly 50% leave within the first five years of entering a teaching career. These are notably because of cases of poor classroom management practices. Championing this assertion, Daly (2005) contend that there’s not a teacher alive who hasn’t felt frustration of trying to manage a classroom with at least one student who repeatedly pulls other students off-task with annoying, disorderly behaviour. When a classroom is properly managed, it provides an environment in which teaching and learning can flourish (Marzano, 2013). It equally ensures that teachers reward appropriate behaviours, impose sanctions on inappropriate behaviours, adapt lessons based on student characteristics and effective use of the lesson period (Emmer and Stough, 2001; Gettinger and Kohler, 2006) as cited in Yildiz (2017). It put the teacher in a position of being a guide, counselor, disciplinarian, custodian, evaluator, curriculum engineer and management (Harden and Crosby, 2009) as cited in Saifi et. al (2006). To the students, it increases their participation in classroom activities, leading to the decrease in disruptive behaviours (Marzano, Marzano and Pickering, 2003) as cited in Yildiz (2017).