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DETERMINITION OF THE COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION AND PUZZLE-BASED INSTRUCTION IN BIOLOGY ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN ETINAN LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF AKWA IBOM STATE.
This chapter discusses the background of the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, limitation of the study and definition of terms.
1.1 Background of the Study
Like many subjects offered at schools, biology is found to be significant in a number of ways to the lives of learners, Shoop, (2010).
There is a great challenge in the way biology and other sciences are taught in schools. The continuous poor performance in sciences generally and biology in particular is a constant source of worry and concern to parents, educators as well as government of the day. If the teaching of biology is to make its maximum contribution to the education and the well being of the society there are certain teachingtechniques that ought to be employed fully in order to facilitate the learning of biology. These technique include the use of computer assisted instruction and puzzle based instruction.
In Nigeria, the realization of the need for a more meaningful and relevant education for development and self reliance is evident in the formulation of the national policy on education as well as production of innovative curricula materials for school (Peter, 2005). The science curricula, specifically biology curriculum for the senior secondary schools were one of such curricula, according to Horby (2002), science is the knowledge about the structure and behaviour of natural and physical world based on facts that can be proved. Science has been and would continue to be of tremendous importance because of its ability to explain many natural occurrences and the central role it plays in the world’s current technology development (Olayiwola, 2014). The quality of education depends on teachers, as reflected in the performance of their duties. The teachers also play a crucial role in education attainment because the teachers are ultimately responsible for translating policy into action. Poor academic performance of learners can be linked to poor teacher’s performance in terms of accomplishing the teaching task, negative attitudes to work and poor teaching method/technique which have attributed to poor motivation. Akiri and Nkechi, (2009).
Unlike chemistry and physics, biology is more descriptive in nature (Mohudiu, 2008). Biology textbooks are often found to consist of long and complex sentences that are Laden with facts.Such structural complexities impose considerable cognitive demands on learners. Also, many technical terms in biology which are derived from Latin and Greek words are alien to learners.
Mohudiu (2008) indicates that, learners in private schools perform much better in biology as compared with learners in public schools. This may be because learners in private schools had a better command of English when they were at primary level and had better skill in secondary level.
The growing incidence of failure on biology rating performance in both senior school certificate examination (WAEC 2004-2008) and Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB 2004-2008) were occasioned by poor state of resources for teaching and learning biology and the environment under which biology takes place. Another reason for the poor performance according to (Locke and McDermid, 2005, Ruiyong, 2004) is due to the abstraction and processes involved in some topics that are not physically observable. Thus, to acquire any successful teaching and learning process, it is necessary that every teacher should decide on the appropriate instructional strategies in collaboration with good instructional materials (Kichin, 2003).
In the rapidly integrating world, knowledge and skills are becoming increasingly important as the source of competiveness and productivity. As such, country with low and outdated knowledge and skills are more and more likely to be excluded from gainful opportunities created by globalization (Khan, 2006). Hence, the applied and implicit knowledge should be the ultimate goal of education system (Khurshid and Ajaja, 2012).
The knowledge of biology, chemistry and physics which have crystallized into concepts, empirical laws and theories from the basis of scientific and technological breakthrough in contemporary society (Oghenevewede, 2009). As we entered 21st century and expect better health for all, abundant food for all, better knowledge to man, animals, plants and less polluted environment and with the declaration of Education For All (EFA). There is need to effectively teach and learn biology to meet the challenges (Ajaja, 2002). Teaching is effective when methods/techniques used to bring about desirable changes in the behaviour of the learners. If learning strategies and students achievement have to improve, then the students have to be introduced to a more efficient and appropriate teaching approaches such as the use of computer assisted instruction and puzzle based instruction. A puzzle is a game, problem, or toy that tests a person’s ingenuity or knowledge. In puzzle, one is required to put pieces together in a logical way, in order to arrive at the correct solution of the puzzle. A computer instruction in computer science is a segment of code that contains steps that need to be executed by the computer processor. Given the changes in the digital world over the last decades, students of the current generation expect technology to be used in advancing their learning requiring methodologies to an active multisensory experimental learning methodology.
Hence, there is greater need to improve the quality of approaches/techniques in sciences especially biology. This can only be achieved by bringing fundamental changes, through innovative and effective approaches/techniques such as the use of computer assisted instruction and puzzle based instruction in the teaching of biology.
It is in line with this background that this study attempts to examine the rationale for using computer assisted instruction and puzzle-based instruction to teaching excretion and investigate senior secondary school students achievement in biology in Etinan Local Government Area.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The poor performances of students in answering examination questions at external examinations in biology is worrisome to biology teachers, government, stakeholders and parents. Hence, there is a felt need for looking into this area in the quest to end this problem. It is observed that students fail at biology because they lack the skills to respond to test items (WAEC, 2008). These skills can only be imparted through the use of computer assisted instruction and puzzle based instruction. Hence, the question then arises thus, does the use of computer assisted instruction and puzzle based instruction have any facilitative effect on students academic performance in biology in Etinan Local Government Area?
1.3 Purpose of the Study
Generally, the purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of puzzle-based instructional strategy and computer assisted instruction in biology on senior secondary schools in Etinan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
Specifically, this study sought to:
- Compare the academic performances of students taught biology using computer assisted instruction and those taught using puzzle-based instruction.
- Compare the academic performances of male students taught biology using computer assisted instruction and those taught using puzzle based instruction.
- Compare the academic performances of female students taught biology using computer assisted instruction and those taught using puzzle based instruction.
1.4 Research Question
1. What differences exist between the performances of students taught biology using computer assisted instruction and those taught using puzzle-based instruction?
2. What is the differences between the mean achievement scores of male students taught biology using computer assisted instruction and those taught using puzzle-based instruction?
3. What is the differences between the mean achievement scores of female students taught biology using computer assisted instruction and those taught using puzzle-based instruction?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The following hypothesis were formulated to guide the study:
- There is no significant difference between the mean achievement scores of students taught biology using computer assisted instruction and those taught using puzzle-based instruction.
- There is no significant difference between the mean achievement scores of male students taught biology using computer assisted instruction and those taught using puzzle-based instruction.
- There is no significant difference between the mean achievement scores of female students taught biology using computer assisted instruction and female student taught using puzzle-based instruction.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will be significant to the following: educational stakeholders, students, teachers, curriculum developers and government.
- The findings of this study will stimulate students interest to embrace the use of computer assisted instruction and puzzle based instruction in learning biology as it promotes students centered kind of learning.
- By sensitizing biology teachers on the numerous benefits of utilizing computer assisted instruction and puzzle-based instruction in teaching biology, hence the resultant productive outcome by students.
- The findings will also enable the curriculum developers to urgently consider it necessary to include the use of computer assisted instruction and puzzle-based instruction in teaching/learning of biology.
- The findings of this study will also enable the government to consider it crucial to organize sensitization workshops for teachers to educate them on the proper use of computer assisted instruction and puzzle-based instruction in teaching biology in senior secondary school in Etinan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
This study is delimited to the use of computer assisted instruction and puzzle-based instruction in teaching the concept of excretion in living things in senior secondary school one (SSS 1) biology in Etinan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
The researcher had challenges in controlling the class of over fifty (50) students during the fieldwork, because the student were reluctant to learn due to the fact they just finish having there compound work when the class started. Hence, with the cooperation and understanding of the research assistant the lesson was delivered with ease.
1.9 Definition of Terms
The relevant terms below were defined relative to their usage in this study.
Puzzle: A crossword game designed to assist students master terms in biology and their meaning example in appendices.
Student Academic Achievement: The performance of students, it is a measure of scores obtained in the Biology Achievement Test (BAT). The achievement of student in examination and test is said to be high when the student has at least a credit and low when the students score below average.
Computer Assisted Instruction: This primarily refers to the use of computer(s) to present instruction to students or it is an interactive instructional technique whereby a computer is used to present the instructional material and monitor the learning that takes place. CAI is designed to help students learn new material through interacting with the computer and students can progress learning with their own speed.
Excretion: This is the process by which waste products of metabolism are removed from the body of living things