Every material on this site is authentic and was extracted from the complete available project.Click to GET IT NOW
MS-WORD DOC || CHAPTERS: 1-5 || PAGES: 49 || PRICE: ₦3000
EFFECTS OF PRACTICAL METHOD ON THE EFFECTIVE TEACHING OF PHYSICS IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS. (A CASE STUDY OF OJODU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA IN LAGOS STATE)
Background of the Study
Physics is generally regarded as the nucleus of all technology. This simply means that physics controls all forms of technology. It also affirm that behind every technology, there is physics.At senior secondary school level, physics is defined as a branch of science that deals with matter, energy, their relationship and their measurements.
The learning of physics is affected by the mathematical background of the learner and the method use by the teacher in teaching concepts (Topics) in physics.The teaching methods that can be used by teacher in effective teaching of physics in senior secondary schools are: (1) Theoretical method and (2) practical method.
Physics in Nigerian Secondary Schools is taught by a lecture approach alone in 62% of the Secondary Schools there. This is what Tropp (1972) described as a “chalk and talk” teaching approach, from the extensive observation she made while on a trip to Nigeria to study the Secondary School Science programmes in Nigeria. She observed that despite the fact that the West African Examination Council mandated that because of its very empirical nature, physics must be studied by the aid of the laboratory classes, this was not being done. Also, the West African Council on Science Education noted in its 1969 annual report that physics was not being studied or taught with the aid of laboratory activities in Nigerian Secondary Schools. It noted, “our studies indicate that this attitude is widespread in the vast majority of schools in these countries.”
Nigerian Secondary School Students who are taught physics by the “chalk and talk” lecture approach have repeatedly demonstrated poor student motivation and achievement in and from their physics education programme. This is evidenced by the poor results in both the in-school teacher-made physics examinations and in the external West African School Certificate physics examinations conducted by the West African Examinations Council for secondary school students planning to graduate at the end of their five year school programme (Ashby, 1970). Ashby described the number and quality of passes in physics from 1966 - 1969 as “extremely unsatisfactory.” The problem of poor achievement by Nigerian Secondary School Physics Students is widespread and consistent. It is possible that these Physics candidates did poorly in the Council’s physics examination because they were taught this subject by lectures alone rather than by lectures as well as laboratory. Ali (1975) noted, for example, that in 1974, 29% of all the Nigerian Secondary School Students who sat for the West African School Certificate Examination in physics passed this subject. In 1977, the figure of passes in this examination was 28%; even lower than 1974’s figure.
Furthermore, All (1975) noted that there are considerable data available which suggest that students, probably, do very poorly in physics because the method of teaching they are exposed to, mostly lecture method, does not enable them to go beyond the lowest hierarchy of learning outcomes in physics, the knowledge or factual recall level. The higher hierarchies of cognitive learning applications, analysis, synthesis and evaluation, following Bloom’s et al (1964) model arc not attained by physics students taught by lectures. This is probably because lectures do not provide the students the opportunity to comprehend, apply and analyse physics problems. Hence, they probably do poorly in these higher cognitive hierarchies in their secondary school physics examinations.
Practical work in senior secondary schools takes the firm of laboratory experiment, demonstrations, framework and excursions. Teacher’s innovativeness and creativity could also introduce novel modes of practical investigations.
Of late, efforts are being made to utilize virtual laboratory that rely on interplay of the computer and internet. Clearly, every effort should be made to create interest in the students to study physics.
Practical method of teaching as defined by prince (2004) is a learning method in which students are engaged in the learning process. In practical method of teaching in the words of Davies, Harfield, Heder Panko Kenley (2007) “students actively participate in the learning experience rather than sit as passive learners”.
Practical method of teaching is different from traditional/ theoretical method of teaching on two points. First, active role of students and second, collaboration among students.The word teaching means to impact knowledge or values in an individual.The word effect means outcome or result. It could be positive or negative.Practical method involves the use of apparatus in teaching physics i.e. teaching and learning activities is based on ‘real life experience’ help learners to transform knowledge or information into their personal knowledge which they can apply in different situations. As a matter of fact, practical teaching method “frequently involves the use of manipulative materials”.
There is a famous saying of Confucius about the success of the students learning that is given below, “Tell me, and I will forget, show me, and I may remember, involve me, and I will understand”.
Practical teaching method help learners to ‘construct mental models that allow for higher order performance such as applied problem solving and transfer of information and skills. Also, in a practical class, the teacher is a facilitator, motivator, guide and a coach not a sage on a stage (Stolen, 2009).