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EXAMINE THE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND JOB PERFORMANCE OF BUSINESS STUDIES TEACHER’S IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN AKWA IBOM STATE.
1.1 Background of the Study
Education, particularly Science and Technical education, is the ‘factory’ for the production of the needed scientists, technologists, technicians and craftsmen as well as skilled artisans who are required to turn the nation’s economy around and usher in the desired scientific and technological advancement which is very much required for the elevation of Nigeria from a ‘consumer nation’ to a ‘producer nation; from a ‘developing nation’ to a ‘developed nation (Avaa, 2007).
Acquisition of appropriate scientific and technological skills is necessary to cope with the challenge presented by the evolving needs of modern work place in our industries and the ever growing non-formal sector. Education and training systems that responds adequately to these demands will therefore, contribute to the efforts to overcome the growing unemployment and marginalization of majority of the populace.
Science teachers have a great role to play in a quest to bring Nigeria to the needed standard in scientific and technological advancement. This group of teachers include the Business Studies teachers whose are expected to render effective teaching to the students for the desired objectives to be made. By providing access to appropriate learning experience designed to broaden skills and knowledge of the Business Studies students can increase improve teaching and learning of Business Studies as one of the important science subjects. It is against this background that science education has been accorded a prime position worldwide. That is why Adesoji and Olatunbosun, (2008), emphasized that within the context of science education, Business Studies has been identified as a very important subject and that its importance in technological development of any nation has been widely reported. It was as a result of the recognition given to Business Studies in the development of the individual and the nation that it was made an important subject among the in Nigerian education system (Adesoji, Olatunbosun, 2008). It has been a pre-requisite subject for offering most arts oriented courses in the tertiary institution and this call for the need in teaching it effectively.
Business Studies teaching is supposed to be result oriented and students centred, and this can only be achieved when students are willing and the teachers are favourably disposed, using the appropriate methods and resources in teaching the students (Adesoji, Olatunbosun, 2008). Arguably, the most important duo of skills for a Business Studies teacher is enthusiasm for business and the ability to inspire the same enthusiasm in high school students. Additional skills necessary for success as a Business Studies teacher are creative thinking, problem solving and managing one's time well.
Students by nature are curios; they need to be actively involved in the learning process in which they are continuously equipping, testing, speculating and building their own personal construct and knowledge. It is only by personalizing such knowledge that it becomes valid, meaningful and useful to them. In Business Studies, students need to actively construct their own personal awareness and meaning (Usman, 2000). To substantiate the argument, Usman, (2006) remarked that the brain is not a passive consumer of information and to learn with understanding, a learner must actively construct meaning of what to be learned. Despite the prime position Business Studies occupies in our educational system and the efforts made by researchers to enhance performance, students’ performance in Business Studies and sciences in general are still low.
Some of the reaso’
ns identified for this failure are laboratory inadequacy, teachers’ attitude, examination malpractice, time constraint for conduction of practice’s, non-coverage of syllabus, class size, non- professionalism and environment. Science practical in schools is aimed at giving the students the opportunity to gain meaningful learning, acquire appropriate skills and attitudes that enable them live and contribute to the development of society.
The duties of a Business Studies teacher include creating lesson plans, preparing and delivering lectures, creating and supervising practical activities for students, evaluating student performance, maintaining classroom records, meeting with parents, teachers and other professionals and participating in campus events. Depending upon the expectations of the employing school, additional research, supervisory or organizational duties may also be required of a Business Studies teacher.
However, every educational setting is for attainment of certain desirable goals. The achievement of the very goals of very educational setting anchors on teaching effectiveness. Effective teaching is easily known through the performance of students who are the carriers of the knowledge. According to Akande (1985), learning can occur through one’s interaction with one’s environment. Environment here refers to facilities that are available to facilitate students learning outcome. It includes books, audio-visual, software and hardware of educational technology; also, size of classroom, sitting position and arrangement, availability of tables, chairs, chalkboards, shelves on which instruments for practical’s are arranged (Farrant, 1991 and Farombi, 1998).
According to Oni (1992), facilities constitute a strategic factor in the functioning of organizations. This is so because they determine to a very large extent job performance of the teachers of any school. Every educational setting is for attainment of certain desirable goals. The overall goals of the educational setting anchor on teaching effectiveness. And teaching effectiveness depends on the teachers who to a large extent depend on the direction given by the school principal. Francis (2004) opined that roughly all teachers make deliberate decision on how hard to work depending on their analysis of costs and reward. This shows that teachers need motivation for effective. Musaazi (1982) in Pius, (2006) defined motivation as inner drive which prompts people to act in a certain way