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INFLUENCE OF JOB RELATED FACTORS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ACADEMIC STAFF IN JIGAWA STATE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, GUMEL
1.1 Background to the Study
For any society to achieve meaningful growth and development, the socio- cultural, economic and political system must be improved. This is why most societies place much emphasis on the development of the individual as a means to national development. Education stems out to be one of the sure means of developing individual’s potentials. In 1981, National Policy on Education postulated that education is the greatest investment that the nation can make for the quick development of its economic, political, sociological and human resources. Among the various educational institutions through which the nation hopes to achieve its vision is the Colleges of Education. The Nigerian colleges of education are institutions saddled with the responsibilities of producing teachers with Nigeria Certificate of Education (N.C.E) which is the minimum entry qualification into the teaching profession in the country. These categories of teachers are meant to teach pupils from Basic 1 to 9, that is, 6 years in primary school and 3 years in junior secondary school.
An important resource to any higher institution of learning is its academic staff as they play regular role that cannot be underestimated. Nowadays, the desire for a high level of academic performance puts a lot of pressure on academic staff, schools and in general the education system itself. In fact, it appears as if the whole education revolves round the performance of teaching staff, though various other outcomes are also expected from the system. Academic staff job performance can be regarded as an index of lecturer effectiveness, which refers to relationship between the characteristics of teaching and its effect on educational outcome in classroom teaching (Alabi, Murtala, & Lawal, 2012).The academic staff performance may be reflected by the student academic performance, the number of academic publications and
various academic conferences attended. To Platt (2010), the performance of employees is a combination result of effort, ability, and perception of tasks. It is imperative for organizational outcomes and success.
However, a number of factors may influence employees performance and these includes burnout (Khdour, Durrah & Harris, 2015 & Pourkiani, Farahmand & Pour, 2014), organizational justice (Costa & Costa, 2014; Manouchehri, Branch, & Katoul, 2014), compensation (Baba, 2015; Osibanjo, Adeniji, & Olubusayo, 2014; Ramzan, Zubair, Ali, & Arslan, 2014), training and development (Alice, 2014; Al-mzary, Mohammad, Mohammed,
& Eid, 2015; Hafeez & Akbar, 2015; Khan, Osama, Haseeb, Waseem, Ayaz & Ijaz, 2016) and organization environmental support.
Job burnout is a state of physical, emotional and mental exhaustion that arises from successive emotional stress and will be more intense fighting with others for long periods. It describes the stress of being out of forbearance in employment opportunities that there will be no longer effective operation and fertility. In this situation it is possible that people become pessimists and if they cannot deal with the source of stress they may mainly just do gestures (Swider& Zimmerman, 2010) Job burnout is a sweeping and general phenomenon that is resulted from unique interaction of the character of the person with the environment and its result is a loss of motivation, enthusiasm, energy and a decrease in live performance. It shouldbe noted that job burnout is not just exhaustion after intense pressure from work but it can spread his overall style of life and his waking hours. According to Pourkiani (2014), burnout has many effects on personal and family lives, some most important of these effects are absenteeism from work, regular delays and disagreement in both the home and workplace, changing jobs and eventually leaving job and where this arise, employees performance is hampered. In colleges of education, lecturers perform numerous
responsibilities in addition to lecturing. The lecturers have to administer students' continuous assessment, attend conferences, seminars and workshops, write research papers and publish in recognized journals as well as engage in community services.
Organizational justice is an essential factor associated with the success of every organization. Akanbi and Ofoegbu (2013) opined that in order to keep employees committed to the organization, the organization needs to be fair in its system regarding organizational justice. Organizational justice perception is one of the important determinants of employee’s perception of organizational commitment and puts stronger impact on different attitudes of the employees like turnover intentions, absenteeism, role breadth, job satisfaction, job performance, leader-member exchange, trust, leadership and organizational commitment(Ali, 2016). Similarly, Tan (2014)observed that employees with high perception of organizational justice are likely to show positive behaviors, while those with negative perception tend to show behaviors such as decreased effort and reduced commitment to their organization and their jobs. Organizational justice deals with the rules developed to distribute or to take decisions on allocation of acquisitions like tasks, goods, services, rewards, punishments, organizational positions, opportunities and roles among workers and group norms that constitute the basis for these rules.
Gunawan and Amalia(2015) asserted that one of the purposes of someone being the employee or a labor of a company is to earn an income in the form of wages or compensation. For organizations, compensation is a cost or expenditure, as well as an important tool to obtain competitive advantages (Lai, 2011). To him, it is an encouragement design whereby the contribution of employees is rewarded. A sound compensation system can stimulate employees to work harder, thus increasing productivity (Lin, 2000), and enhance job performance. Lin suggested that compensation is not simply a return for labor
service. It is an important tool that managers can use to influence and manipulate employee behavior. It is one of the key drivers of employee behavior because humans are naturally inclined to perform better when they perceive that they will get sufficient payment or returns from their efforts. While people exert effort for different reasons, today’s competitive economic environment coupled with the consumer society has made compensation arguably the most important motivation factor. Most people are motivated by money at least for their basic needs and wants.
Academic staff just like any other employee of organization is from time to time developed through training as improved capabilities, knowledge and skills of the talented workforce proved to be a major source of competitive advantage in a global market. Yusuf (2016) observed that with the emerging trends of education in Nigeria, the quality of academic staff of institutions is becoming increasingly threatened to the extent that some parents have developed the habit of rejecting some caliber of teachers. The academic staff has to keep abreast with the changes in teaching methodologies, pedagogies and curriculum and hence the, importance of training and development. This might be achieved by way of training and development of staff. Training is a systematic process to enhance employee’s skill, knowledge and competency, necessary to perform effectively on job (Obisi, 2001). Training and development are indispensable strategic tools for effective individual and organization performance.
Furthermore, employee work place environment, just like burnout, organizational justice, compensation and training and development, is a vital factor associated with employee behavioral outcomes. The type of workplace environment in which employees operate determines whether or not such organizations will thrive. This environment involves the physical location as well as the direct surroundings, behavioral procedures, policies, rules, culture, resources, working affairs, all of which affects the ways employees perform their work (Heath, 2006). An effective workplace environment management entails making work environment attractive, comfortable, satisfactory and motivating to employees so as to give employees a sense of pride and purpose in what they do (Humphries, 2005). Employees will and are always satisfied when they feel their immediate environment; both physical sensations and emotional states are in support with their obligations (Farh, 2012) and how well employees connect with their organization’s immediate workplace environment, affect to a great extent their error level, efficiency and innovativeness, association with other employees, absenteeism and, ultimately their retention (Leblebici, 2012). This study, therefore, is meant to examine the effect of burnout, compensation, organizational justice, environmental support and training and development on academic staff performance of Jigawa state college of education, Gumel.