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MITIGATION OF METHANE EMISSIONS FROM SANITARY LANDFILLS AND SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS IN IMO STATE
1.1 Background of the study
Global warming has become a matter of public concern since last few years. This could be mainly attributed to the trapping of enormous quantities of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the earth’s atmosphere resulting in GHG effect thereby increasing the earth temperature. GHGs emissions are produced from natural as well as anthropogenic sources. Many sources have been recognized for GHG production within the various development sectors such as the energy, agricultural and the waste (Kumar et al. 2004). Municipal waste namely, wastewater and solid waste are the identified sources of GHG emissions mainly methane. A significant amount of the total methane produced and released into the atmosphere results from the anaerobic decomposition of degradable organic wastes. Global methane emissions from wastewater treatment under anaerobic conditions are estimated to range from 30 to 40 tetra grams per year (Tg/year), this represents 8–11% of the global anthropogenic methane emissions. Methane emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills account for an estimated 3–19% of the global anthropo-genic methane emissions (IPCC 1996).
The intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) outlines a methodology to address the issues of methane emissions and climate change. This methodology can be summarized in three major steps: first, methane emissions from the identified sources in a certain sector are estimated in what is called GHG inventory, and this provides the baseline data that is needed in all the subsequent steps. Mitigation is the second step that requires the reduction and/or elimination of the causes of climate change through minimizing the net emissions of GHGs. The last step is the development of a set of actions/policies taken to identify, analyze and adapt to the impacts of climate change.
Mitigation is the process of analyzing the costs and impacts of different options (practices or technologies) that could alleviate climate change through the reduction of GHG emissions from different sources, or increasing their absorption in sinks. In general, this analysis has two objectives:
- Evaluating the options that take into account the national development as well as climate change mitigation
- Identifying policies and programs that promote the
implementation of the selected options.
Usually, several scenarios are used for climate change mitigation (IPCC 1992). One of them is the ‘‘reference’’ or ‘‘baseline’’ scenario, which refers to continuing the activities in a certain sector without any future policies or actions designed to mitigate GHG emissions. The others are ‘‘mitigation’’ scenarios that describe actions/policies adopted to mitigate GHG emissions. In such scenarios, socio-economic and demographic trends are assumed to continue as they are through the period of analysis. The production of energy from renewable source is one of the main issues to pursue in the near future to reduce environmental damage and resources depletion and to reduce gases emissions (Desideri et al. 2003).
Abdulla and Al-Ghazzawi (2000) estimated the net methane emissions produced by waste management facil- ities (WMFs) in Nigeria for the year 1994. The total methane emitted from MSW sites and wastewater treat- ment plants (WWTPs) during the year 1994 was estimated at 376 Gg. Using this NGN inventory as the baseline, this paper aims to identify mitigation methods for major sour- ces of the waste sector. For this purpose, the largest WWTP (As-Samra) and the two largest MSW landfills (Rusaifeh and Akaider) in Nigeria are considered. These three WMFs release approximately 80% of the total methane emissions from the municipal waste sector in Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Purpose of the study
1. To examine mitigation of methane emissions from sanitary landfills.
2. To examine process of mitigation of methane emissions from sanitary landfills.
3. To examine the challenges of mitigation of methane emissions from sanitary landfills.
1.4 Research Questions
1. What is the mitigation of methane emissions from sanitary landfills?
2. What is the process of mitigation of methane emissions from sanitary landfills?
3. What are the challenges of mitigation of methane emissions from sanitary landfills?
1.5 Significance of the study
The significance of this study can be viewed from the following perspectives.
1. One main significance of this study is that when completed, it would serve as a bridge for the gap that have been created between where previous works on this subject area stopped and today.
2 This study is significant in the sense that it’s finding would serve as a base and framework for future researchers to carry out further studies in the field of knowledge under study.
3 The government would benefit from this study in view of the fact that they would learn how methane emission is and in reaction, effectively and adequately implement this programme in all concerned agencies.
4 The outcome of this research is hoped to be of immense use to students of management science, chemistry since it contains information on methane emission.
1.6 scope of the study
The scope of the study was delimitated to mitigation Of Methane Emissions From Sanitary Landfills And Sewage Treatment Plants In Imo State.
1.7 limitation of the Study
In every research work, it is likely that the researcher may encounter some limitations. The researcher encountered some challenges during the period of carrying out this research. Some of these challenges include the dearth of materials for a proper and effective research work constituted a major limitation.