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MODERATING ROLE OF ORGANIZATIONAL AFFECTIVE COMMITMENT ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SELF EFFICACY, TRAINING AND PERFORMANCE OF TEACHERS IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN BAUCHI MEROPOLIS
1.1 Background to the study
Public Secondary schools are established to educate and enable contributions of the students to the economic, political and socio-cultural wellbeing of a country as well as discovering their talents. In 2014, statistics have shown that Bauchi State recorded 5.28% success in West African Examination Council (WAEC). In the year 2015, out of the20,534 candidates that sat for the WAEC only 750 students representing 3.65% made 5 credits. Furthermore, the state was ranked 36th on the performance table (see appendix J). Consequently, the realization of objectives of these public secondary schools is becoming threatened. An important factor responsible for this can be attributed to the deteriorating expertise of teachers of these schools and this is evident by the recent remark made by the state governor. He expressed his dismay on the declining commitment and performance of the teachers in the state (Abubakar, 2016).Teachers, according to Waseka, Sitmatwa and Okwach (2016) are regarded as the most influential school-based factors that influence students‘ performance.Performance describes the achievement of specific tasks measured against predetermined or identified standards of accuracy, completeness, cost and speed (Afshan, Sobia, kamran& Nasir 2012).
Extant studies, however, (e.g. Amir & Amen, 2013, Bashir, Alias, &Awang, 2016;Ghannam, 2010; Owens, 2006) have documented factors attributed to the deteriorating performance of teachers in the world some of which are inadequate facilities, poor commitment of teachers, inadequate training, low qualification and teachers‘ belief. In different studies done in Nigeria (e.g., Welson, 2016; Yusuf & Dada, 2016; Akinsola, 2010) have established various reasons that contributed to the declining performance of teachers in Nigeria which include inadequate
facilities, low qualification,poor commitment, lack of supervision, inadequate training among others. Efforts need to be made by Bauchi state government to provide the necessary training need for the teachers. Studies (e.g,Elnaga & Imran, 2013; Rahman, Nabi, Akhter, Hasan, & Ajmal, 2011; Khan, Khan, & Khan, 2011; Obisi, 2011) have noted that providing training for human resource is a key to the success of any organization. To them, the smooth and efficient running of any organization depends on how well staffare equipped with appropriate skills to perform their tasks. A teacher just like any other employee is from time to time developed through training. Improved capabilities, knowledge and skills of the talented workforceproved to be a major source of schools strengths. With the emerging trends of education in Nigeria, the quality of teachers is becoming increasingly threatened to the extent that some schools have cultivated the habit of rejecting some caliber of teachers (Yusuf & Dada, 2016). The teacher has to keep abreast with the changes in teaching methodologies, pedagogies and curriculum and hence the importance of training for teachers. This might be achieved by way of training of staff. Training is a systematic process to enhance employee‘s skill, knowledge and competency, necessary to perform effectively on job (Obisi, 2001). Teaching by its very nature involves solving ill-defined problems that are complex, dynamic, and non-linear. Consequently, performance of teachers maylargely depend on their personal attributes and belief in oneself.The way and manner teachers define tasks, employ strategies, view the possibilityof success, belief and ultimately solve the problems and challenges they face differ. It is this concept of personal attributes that underlies the importance of self-efficacy as a critical component in job related performance(Judge, Jackson, Shaw, Scott, & Rich, 2007). Teacher self-efficacyis the perception teachers have, that they can effectively perform the professional task. Substantial number of studies have elaborated about the influence of teacher self efficacy beliefs on children‘s achievement and success at school (Tournaki&Podell, 2005). Chacon (2005) and Ajala (2013) observed that teachers with high self-efficacy beliefs are more likely to perform well in implementing innovations in the classroom, using classroom management approaches and adequate teaching methods and encourage students‘ autonomy, and to take responsibility for students with special learning needs than teachers with a low sense of self-efficacy. Self-efficacy determines the tasks an employee chooses to learn and the targets they set for themselves (Lunenburg, 2011). To him, Self-efficacy affects employees‘ level of effort and persistence when learning difficult task. It is common to notice, however, some teachers who may be provided with training and facilities to aids in the discharge of responsibilities yetperform below expectation. This might be as a result of low commitment, supervision, pay and other work related factors. For example, Nkosi (2015) noted that training opportunity has a significant relationship with employee affective commitment, the study concluded that employees who are awarded training opportunity will be more committed to the job and the resulting effect will be improvement in performance.Employee affective commitment to his/her organization has been dubbed as a major determinant of positive organizational outcomes, such as, increased productivity and employee retention (Morrow & McElroy, 1986). Other studies have linked organizational commitment to higher efficiency, receptiveness to change, reduced turnover, increased efforts, and innovativeness (Vallas, 2003).Organizational affective commitment is the workers‘ attachment to the whole organization and is generally defined as devotion, participation in, and identification with the company (Lambert, Hogan, Paoline, & Clarke, 2005). Allen and Meyer (1990) categorized organizational commitment into three forms that is, affective, continuance, and normative commitment. Affective commitment is the most desirable form of organizational commitment as it measures the workers sense of belongingness and has been reported to have the largest set of benefits for companies (Allen and Meyer 1990). Thus, we have focused on affective commitment in this study and explored whether it can interact with training, self-efficacy and ultimately improve employee performance. The problem of this study is related to the gap between the expected performance and the actual performance of the teachers of public secondary school in Bauchi metropolis. This gap may be bridged through well designed training and development programs, enhancing organizational affective commitment, performance accomplishments which according to Bandura (1997) have proven to be the most influential source of efficacy because they are based on one's own mastery experiences. Also, Cherian and Jacob (2013) asserted that there have been a number of reviews that examined the impact of self efficacy on organizational settings, however, only few have considered the overall impact on employee performance as well as ones that link self efficacy directly to organizational affective commitment and hence performance. Past studies (e.g., Obisi, 2001; Nkosi, 2015 &Iroegbu, 2015) have shown that both self efficacy and training are both integral part of performance and both these factors contribute to a good service quality, effectiveness and efficiency in the workplace. Given the new educational challenges, there is a growing concern that the preparation of teachers need to beenhanced for them to be fully effective in the discharge of their duties. The problem of this study is to examineif teachers participation in staff trainingprogrammes relates to their job performance. This study investigates the moderating role of organizational affective commitment on the relationship between self efficacy, training and teachers' performance of public secondary schools in Bauchi metropolis.
1.2 Statement of problem
Poor performance of teachers is a global phenomenon that cannot be ignored by anyone who is aware of the significant role of teachers as instruments for societal transformation and development. In Bauchi State, the performance of public secondary school teachers is deteriorating day by day as expressed by current stategovernor in 2016. Past studies (e.g., Al-mzary, Mohammad, Mohammed, & Eid, 2015; Elnaga & Imran, 2013; Falola, Osibanjo, & Ojo, 2014; Hafeez & Akbar, 2015) have proved a positive link between training and teacher performance, as training brings benefits for the teacher along with for the schoolby positively impacting teacher performance through the enhancement of teacher expertise and behavior. To them, well trained teachers show both quantity and quality performance. There is less wastage of time, money and resources if teacher are providedwith training. Cherian and Jacob (2013) also noted that performance of teachers is positively influenced by the overall self-efficacy. According to them, it is proved that the organizational behavior of the skeptical practicing professionals is usually influenced a significant amount of confidence. Teachers‘ cognitive and behavioral control as well as their efficacy beliefs are expected to be the basis of their ability to guide their professional development during and after completion of their initial teaching certification (Bembenutty, 2006). In a related assertion, Caprara, Barbaranelli, Steca and Malone(2006) argued that teachers whose self efficacy are high are more capable of using instructional strategies effectively, more capable of ensuring student participation and more successful in classroom management skills. Consequently, enacting self- regulation and enhancing ones‘ self-efficacy beliefs during an advanced professional training are essential for attaining efficiency. However, despite the positive relationship between self efficacy and teacher performance, some studies (e.g., Vancouver, Thompson, Tischner & Putka, 2002; Judge & Bono, 2001; Prieto, 2009; Yeo& Neal, 2006) negatedly noted that teacher self efficacy may not always improve performance. This may be so because some tasks are complex to execute. For example, Judge and Bono (2001) are of the view that self efficacy may not work without some intervening variables. To them, effect of self efficacy on performance may be subjected to individual differences. Hence, this makes studies on the impact of self efficacy on performance inconsistent and therefore requires further investigation. In this light, studies (e.g., Adio&Popoola, 2010; Niu, 2010) have observed that self-efficacy has significant positive relationship to organizational affective commitment. It is on the basis of this argument that this study determines the moderating role of employee organizational affective commitment in the relationship between self efficacy, training and teacher performance.