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MOTIVATION AND EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE IN AKWA IBOM CIVIL SERVICE
1.1 Background to the study
Organizations are set up to achieve some set goals. In order to achieve these goals and objectives, the human factor is of utmost importance. Thus, the human factor through the leadership or management mobilizes and utilizes all other factors such as performance appraisals, employee motivation, employee satisfaction, compensation, training and development, job security, organizational structure and others, to bring about desired performance of the organization. But the area of this study will be focused on employee motivation as a factor that can enhance employee performance. This is because no organization can hope to achieve high level of performance without a well-motivated workforce. It is generally believed that when employees are adequately motivated, they tend to work better. In contrast, when they are inadequately motivated, their performance tends to be impaired (Ejere, 2010). This explains why scholars have spent considerable time and resources in research, in an attempt to discover the secrets or techniques of motivating employees for optimum performance.
However, lack of motivation among employees in an organization contributes for the failure in the accomplishment of desired goals and objectives. In order to avert these failures experienced by most organizations, employee motivation is an absolute necessity and the manager’s realization of the type of motivation that will enhance the employees to perform their jobs optimally will lead to the achievement of a high level of advancement of the organization. Therefore, the total organisational performance depends on efficient and effective performance of individual employees of the organisation. It is important to note though, that different employees in different organisations are motivated differently with various type of motivation (which could be intrinsic or extrinsic) by leaders, managers or administrators who inspire them to act in different ways towards job performance in the organisation.
Motivation is simply that set of processes that arouse, direct and maintain human behaviour towards some goals (Greenberg and Baron, 2003); while employee performance shows individual behaviours that contribute to achieve organisational objectives. A number of studies that have examined the relationship between employee motivation and performance indicate that there is a relationship that exists between the two (Nelson and Quick, 2003; Ololube, 2006; Abejirinde, 2009; Baibata, 2010; and Sharma and Chaudhary, 2012). The most obvious incentive for increasing employee performance is often thought to be based on salary and promotions, classified as extrinsic motivation and has yielded contrary result as demonstrated by myriad of studies. On the other hand, in today’s demanding workplace there is a shift from extrinsic motivation to intrinsic motivation. This comes in form of employees engaging in activities based on the satisfaction they will derive, a sense of achievement, the work itself and not necessarily the rewards, which could be external or financial in nature or fear of being sanctioned (Cole 1996; Drucker, 2002; and Olusola, 2011).
Employee reward can either be financial or non-financial or both. What is important is that an employee is adequately compensated for his efforts and such practice actually induces him for greater performance (Gunu, 2005). However, reward that motivates employees may not be the same for everybody. In fact, Fery (1997) argues that once pay exceeds a subsistence level, intrinsic factors are stronger motivators and staff motivation requires intrinsic rewards such as satisfaction at doing a good job and sense of doing something worthwhile. There are mixed findings in the literature to determine which type of reward is more effective in increasing employees’ performance. According to Perry (2006), financial rewards is not the most motivating factors as it sometimes show some de-motivating effects among high level employees.
On the other hand, although Perry (2006) found that financial reward is not the most motivating factor and that financial incentives have de-motivating effect among employees, Lotta (2012) insists that financial incentives are indeed very effective in motivating employee. Also, Ojokuku and Sajuyigbe (2009) lent their own support to the finding when they found in their own study that financial incentives (pay satisfaction dimensions) have significant effect on employee’s performance. However, good as these findings appear, it is important to note that in applying financial and non-financial rewards to workers, effective manager must as a matter of necessity realize that different motivators are appropriate for different staff and that different staff will demonstrate differing inherent levels of motivation in setting their own targets and striving to achieve them (Kida, Mahmud and Nuhu, 2015).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The inefficiency and low output that characterizes civil service in Nigeria has occupied public discourse for more than two decades now. It must be noted, however, that civil servants face a lot of difficulties in the discharge of their duties in Nigeria (Ejumudo, 2014). Also, Behn (2003) notes that problems of civil servants in Nigeria ranges from poor and irregular pay to lack of rewards to motivate them and enhance their performance. Hence, this study seeks to investigate this claim and provide measures for job motivation and satisfaction towards optimum employee performance in Akwa Ibom State civil service.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The broad objective of this study is to examine the impact of motivation and employee performance in Akwa Ibom State civil service. However, the specific objectives are to:
i. Examine the relationship between pay reward and employee performance in Akwa Ibom State civil service.
ii. Ascertain the relationship between employee recognition and performance in Akwa Ibom State Civil Service.
iii. Examine the relationship between work environment and employee performance in Akwa Ibom State Civil service.
iv. Investigate the relationship between staff development affects employee performance in Akwa Ibom State Civil service.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were raised to guide the study objectives:
i. Does pay reward affect employee performance in Akwa Ibom State Civil Service?
ii. Does employee recognition affect performance in Akwa Ibom State Civil Service?
iii. Does conducive work environment affect employee performance in Akwa Ibom State Civil service?
iv. Does staff development affect employee performance in Akwa Ibom State civil service?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:
Ho. There is no significant relationship between pay reward and employee performance in Akwa Ibom State Civil Service
Ho: There is no significant relationship between employee recognition and performance in Akwa Ibom State Civil Service.
Ho:There is no significant relationship between conducive work environment and employee performance in Akwa Ibom State Civil Service.
Ho: There is no significant relationship between staff development and employee performance in Akwa Ibom State Civil Service.
1.6 Significance of the Study
- The outcome of this study will be of immense benefits to students, government and more specifically AkwaIbom state Civil servants.
- Policy makers in the three tiers of government will find the recommendations that will follow in the study very useful because it will give sufficient insight into the issues of motivation and employee performace in Civil Service.
- The government will see the need to take the issue of reward, both financial and non financial very serious and improve productivity in civil service.
- This study will also enlighten employees on the issues of motivation in civil service so that they are properly guided on what they should expect from their employers to reduce tendency for conflict between them and their employers. High productivity and output demand that work environment be harmonious.
- Finally, students and researcher will also benefit from the study because it will serve as a base data for those who might want to carry out further studies in the area.
1.7 Scope and Limitations of the Study
Primarily, the research is aimed at the impact of motivation and employee performance in Akwa Ibom State civil service. The study is also designed to cover the staff of Akwa Ibom State Internal Revenue Board.
The research is limited by certain factors like;
- Time factor: not enough time to study the whole ministries in Akwa Ibom Civil Service.
- Finance: lack of funds to carry out the research
- Most contacted people failed to give some reasonable and prudent information for the conduct of the research
1.8 Organization of the Study
This work is organised in five chapters
Chapter one is all about the introduction of the study, background to the study, statement of the problem. Objectives of the study, research question, research Hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitations of the study, organization of the study, and the definition of terms.
Chapter Two reviews related literature which is divided into the conceptual framework, theoretical framework and empirical framework.
Chapter Three discusses the research methodology which brings to bare the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sampling techniques, sources of data,the main instrument, validity of the instrument, reliability of the instrument and the data analysis techniques.
Chapter Four presents the data, analysis interpretation of data.
Chapter Five entails the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations.
1.9. Definition of terms
Employee performance is defined as whether a person executes their job duties and responsibilities well. Many companies assess their employee's performance on an annual or quarterly basis in order to define certain areas that need improvement. Performance is a critical factor in organizational success.
Employee recognition is “the action or process of recognising or being recognised ”. Recognition can be delivered on behalf of the company to an individual, by a manager or more powerfully by peers who witness the great contribution of their fellow employees every day. If recognition is given consistently and frequently it has a significant impact on employee performance, engagement and overall behaviour.
Staff development can be viewed as the activities and programs (formal or informal ) that help staff members learn about responsibilities, develop required skills and competencies necessary to accomplish institutional and divisional goals and purposes, and grow personally and professionally to prepare themselves for advancement in the institution.
Motivation: Motivation by definition refers to what activates, directs human behaviour and how this behaviour is sustained to achieve a particular goal. Also it can be defined as the set of processes that arouse, direct and maintain human behaviour towards attaining some goals. Jones (1955) argues that” Motivation is concerned with how behaviour gets started, is energised, is sustained, is directed, is stopped and what kind of subjective reaction is presenting the organisation while all this is going on. “Gibson, Ivancevick, and Donnelly (Organisations: processes, structure, behaviour Pp214).