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MOTIVATION AND JOB PERFORMANCE AMONG SELECTED PRIVATE AND PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ABAK LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
1.1 Background to the Study
Although, man has been concerned with the relationship between himself and his work, it was only during the early part of the twentieth century that industrial sociologists and other behavioural scientist began to focus attention on the interplay between motivation of individuals and job performance (Adam, 1965).
Motivators are culturally determined (Herzberg, 1959). The values placed on hard work vary for culture to culture. Some culture stress a person’s duty to contribute to society; others stress a person’s right to meaningful work; still others stress a person’s need for happiness at work. Sociologists are especially interested in studying the impact of rewards and success within the context of culture.
Hofstede (1983) examined attitude in more than 50 countries, and found that organization and culture vary in four main ways. Power distance is the extent to which there is a rigid hierarchy or pecking order in an organization limiting employee’s independence of action. Uncertainty avoidance is a lack of tolerance for ambiguity or uncertainty in the workplace, which may be found in risk adverse countries such as Japan. Culture varies in the extent to which they value individualism as opposed to the collective good. Hofstede emphasis on work goals as opposed to interpersonal goals, a trait he labeled masculinity, also varies form culture to culture.
Prior to the development of tools for motivational research, the individual worker was viewed as a social isolate motivated primarily by physiological and security needs. This view was emphasized by Etuk (1980) which saw the workers as a member of a social organization and as such, his behaviour was influenced by the desire for stable social interaction. Etuk (1980) observed that the worker looked upon as one seeking the higher order, needs satisfaction of self respect, peer respect, autonomy and self actualization. From this perspective emphasis has shifted to include not only instrumental return from work such as pay, security and social relationship but also expressive returns from direct performance of work role (Vroom, 1964). Hence, terms like job design, job control and enlargement or enrichment have been coined to reflect this emphasis.
Employee relationship relies on many factors beyond economic motivation. Expectancy theories suggest that a workers effort and desire to maintain goal directed behaviour are determined by expectation regarding the outcomes of that behaviour. According to Vroom, a person must first have the willingness and the ability to perform the task without that, the effort will be frustrating and thus non-motivating. Vroom’s theory holds that motivation results from a three part equation made up of expectancy (hard work succeeds), instrumentality (good performance yields reward), and valence (rewards are valued). Ability effort and role perceptions determine performance. The extent to which satisfaction is derived from performance will affect role perception.
The emphasis on the workers psychological state has continued to gain momentum. This is many reasons advised as to why people work. Some work primarily for the salary they receive (Taylor, 1947) some because of the status and prestige they receive (Haralombos, 1992) while others work because of the satisfaction they derive from their work places.
According to Stoner (1982), motivation is essential to human resources to use materials resources, effectively to achieve the objective of the organization. The application of the concept to motivation help the manager to appeal to the conscience of the employees in the organization thereby helping to stimulate greater interest in the overall production capacity of the organization.
Yesufu (1982) pointed out that for any organization to survive, workers must not only be satisfied but must also be made to produce effectively and efficiently to the attainment of the organizational goals and objectives. In addition, lack of motivational strategies and inadequate incentives plans have been the sources of dissatisfaction and low productivity among Nigerian workers.
In relation to this study, it is argued that satisfied teachers are generally more productive and can influence student achievement (Mertler 1992). Motivation guide people action and behaviours towards achievement of some goals (Analoui, 2000). In work, motivation is often described as intrinsic or extrinsic in nature (Sansone and Harackiewiez, 2000). Intrinsic motivation is derive from within the person or form the activity itself, performance and well being (Ryan and Deci, 2000). Extrinsic motivation result from the attainment of externally administered rewards, including pay or wages, prestige, material possession and positive evaluation among others.
In this study intrinsic motivation of teachers was measured in terms of job satisfaction derived from teaching, enjoyment of teaching, the challenging nature of teaching, recognition, career achievement and control over others. Extrinsic motivation of teachers on the other hand was measured in terms of externally administered rewards like salary, free accommodation, free medical care, extra teaching allowance, advance payments in case of financial problems, leave of absence among others.
Teacher’s job performance is a concern for everybody in the society. The Oxford Advance Learners Dictionary define performance as “the act of carrying out something or execution of an action or a repetitive act or fulfillment or implementation”. In this respect, teacher’s performance connotes the teacher’s role of teaching students in class. The key aspects of teaching involve teaching methods, regular assessment of student, making lesson plans, assessment of pupils, conduct of fieldwork, teacher’s participation in sport, attending schools assembly and guidance and counselling. The teacher’s performance is the teacher’s ability to integrate their experience, knowledge, skills in delivering subject matter to student in the classroom. Teacher’s performance in this study was measured by regular and early reporting at school, participation on extra-curricular activities, and supervision of school activities, adequate teaching preparation (schemes of work and lesson plans), marking and general punctuality among others.
The study is therefore designed to examine the extent to which teachers in the private and public secondary schools in Abak Local Government are motivated and their level of job performance in the school. Teachers who are highly motivated will influence the student achievement positively. The level of job performance of teachers affects the student performance in school. Therefore, if teachers are highly motivated, they will improve their level of job performance in the school. This study will discover the extent to which teachers are motivated in the private and public secondary schools and how it affects their job performance in the school.