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ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND EMPLOYEES PERFORMANCE, CASE STUDY OF SELECTED SCHOOLS IN IKOT ABASI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
1.1 Background of the Study
The role of organizational culture in employee performance is a topic that has received extensive coverage in the literature, although, from different viewpoints and with different findings as to its relevance Alvesson (2002) summaries four views on the relationship between organizational culture and performance. The strong-culture thesis, where a strong culture leads to high performance, the exact opposite, where performance leads to creation of “strong” culture; the contingency approach, where certain cultures are appropriate and necessary and finally the “adaptive culture” which are the key to better performance through its ability to respond to environmental changes quickly.
Denison (2004) stated that there is little evidence on the impact of an organization’s culture on it employee’s performance. He found that organizations with participative cultures were performing better than those cultures that were not. This is in line with Burt, Gabbay, Holt and Moran (2004), who hold that a feature of culture is important for an organization’s performance to the extent to which the employee buy into it other scholars build on the foundation through empirical research on organizational cultural and employee’s performance (Gordon and DI Tomaso, 2002; Kotter and Heskett 2002, Marcouldes Soresnsen 2002 and Heck 2003). Some degree of correlation has also been found by Burt, Gabbay, Holt and Moran (2004), as well as by Ogbonna and Harris (2000) to mention a few. Rashed and S. Rashed (2003) found from studying organizational culture literature that there is a clear link between culture and employee’s performance. However, Lewis (2004) concludes her study of a tertiary institution in Australia by stating that behaviour is the only thing that directly affect an organization’s performance. She further posits that “while behaviour may be one embodiment of culture, culture is certainly not the only determinant of behavior”. From thisrange of literature, it appears as the role of organizational culture in performance has received increasingly more interest and acceptance over the years. Although such relationship is difficult to prove, some of the above mentioned scholars have found different degrees of correlations. This research therefore aims to contribute to this discourse by studying the effect of organizational culture on employee performance, using selected schools in Ikot Abasi Local Government Area.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Organizational culture affects the performance and productivity of organizations in a tremendous way. Sanusi (2010) argued that poor corporate governance and poor corporate culture were responsible for the problems faced by Nigerian organizations in the post-consolidation era.Studies like Dillmar et al (2009), Kennedy et al (2000) and Fabowali et al (2008) studied the relationship between the school effectiveness and so-called process characteristic, which relate to the organizational features and internal functioning of schools. Probably the most cited summing up of this kind of research has been provided by Edelstein (2012), who has listed five factors that are believed to be the most salient features of effective schools;a strong administrative leadership, high expectations for children’s achievement, an orderly atmosphere conducive to learning, an emphasis on basic-skill acquisition, and frequent monitoring of student’s progress.
Since the 1970’s, the number of studies on school culture has grown considerably. Despite thus growth, however, our knowledge of organizational cultural types in schools is still rather limited this is primarily due to the fact that most empirical research in schools culture has been qualitative and interpretive in nature (Kelley & Bredeson, 2002; Kottkamp, 2004; Oriitiz, 2006; Owens, Steenhoff and Rosenbaum, 2009). Pang (2009) on the culture of schools in Hong Kong pang identified a cultural profile for each of the school in his study, based on the composite scores of these schools on four variables, bureaucratic linkage, tight coupling and loose coupling. Hence this study is assigned to find out the effect of organizational culture on employee performance by examining how values such as teacher competence and team work has had effect on school performance, rituals on the other hand exhibited through school behavioral patterns and unwritten rules also has had an influence on how school have been performing over the years, artifacts through school symbols has boosted performance of schools as a form of motivation and togetherness while basic assumptions seen through student teacher interrelations, the nature of realities and stories influences dimensions of employee performance.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main objective of this study was to assess the effect of organizational culture on employee performance in selected schools in Ikot Abasi Local Government Area. The specific objectives includes:
1.3.1 To assess the effect of values on employee performance.
1.3.2 To find out the effect of norms on employee performance.
1.3.3 To describe the effects of basic assumptions on employee performance.
1.3.4 To examine the perceived relationship between organizational culture and employee performance.
1.3.5 To identify other variables that determine performance of an employee in an organization.
1.3.6 To make recommendation for further research on the effect of organizational culture on employee performance.