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ORIENTATION PROCESS AND TEACHERS EFFECTIVENESS IN SECONDARY SCHOOL IN EKET LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA IN AKWA IBOM STATE.
1.1 Background of the Study
The selection of the best person for a job is only the first step in building an effective management staff. Even companies that make efforts in the recruitment and selection process often ignore the need of new staff after they have been hired. Yet the first few days and weeks can be crucial for integrating the raw person into the organization.
According to Mullin, Orientation involves the introduction of new member of staff to the culture and environment of the organization, its policies and to the other members of staff. Effective Orientation is a process covering the first few months at work but it can be viewed as an extension of the recruitment and selection procedure starting with the selection process. Orientation should include attention to rules and regulations, familiarization operation of the organization and personal training and development needs.
The first impressions of an organization and its managers are seldom forgotten. New members of staff face an unfamiliar environment and have to make a number of personal adjustments. A warm welcome, initial introduction and a properly planned and well-designed orientation programme will do much to re-assure members and will do much to re-assure members and their motivation and attitude to their work performance.
The orientation programme should be designed to help new members of staff to familiarize themselves with their new environment to settle easily into their new job and to establish harmonious working relationship with other members to staff. Orientation should faster the realization of the psychological contract developed during recruitment and selection. The overall goal of orientation is to help new employees to easily adjust, adopt and fit into new work environment and settle down business with minimum difficulties and discomforts of recently employed workers include the following:
- To create in the employee an initial favourable impression of the organization and its work.
- To ease the new employee’s entry into the work group by reducing anxiety and enhancing inter-personal acceptance and trust and removing feeling of insecurity and lack of audience.
- To help ease members new comers adjustment problems to the organization. That is, it helps new employee to feel at home more quickly.
- To reduce cost of excessive labour turn over.
- To provide specific information concerning the task and performance expectation on the job systematically change the expectation attitudes and behaviours of new employees in a manner desirable by the organization.
- To create a sense of welcome security, self confidence and belonging (Peretomode, 2001)
It is important to remember that people cannot fully absorb a large amount of information at one time particularly in what could be a strange and initially uncomfortable situation. The orientation programme should therefore be planned carefully and staggered over a reasonable period. It will also involve the active co-operation of managers, supervisors and colleagues.
Orientation information packs video presentation and a named mentor to act as a “buddy” to guide and help new members of staff are all helpful features an effective orientation programme. Teaching effectiveness is the act or practice of teaching effectively by using instructional materials. It means giving information or leadership, doctrine or instruction to the learners through effective use of instructional materials or appropriate language. It includes teacher’s human relationship with students and other staff. Teaching effectiveness could be leading the students to participate in curricular and extra-curricular activities within and outside the school.
Teaching effectiveness is important because effective learning help studentsperformance. It has become even more important as the quality in higher education has increased. Effective teaching does not occur by chance. Effective teachers are good at what they do because they evaluate their practice. James suggests that educational evaluation is a professional responsibility for academic staff, arising from a commitment to understanding the effects on teaching on students and to enhance learning. There are numerous ways of evaluating teaching or monitoring its effectiveness Beck, 2005 identifies twelve potential sources of evidence of teaching effectiveness, these includes:
- Student ratings (such as students evaluations of teaching);
- Peer reviews
- Videos of practice
- Interviews with student
- Alumni, employer and administrator ratings,
- Teaching awards and scholarship
- Learning outcome measures; and maintenance of teaching portfolios.
Teachers, students, administrators are involved in teachers’ effectiveness. An effective teacher cultivate thinking skills, stimulate interest in the subject and motivate students to learn. An effective teacher is interesting, approachable, he presents his material well, makes his subject interesting, helpful and knowledgeable Feldman, 2011 did a meta-analysis of 31 studies in which teachers and students identified characteristics associated with good teaching and effective instruction. He found out that students emphasized the importance of teachers being interesting, having good elocutionary skills, being available and helpful. An effective teacher should be intellectually challenging, motivating students, setting high standards and encouraging self initiated learning.
But do the teacher attributes activities and make it more likely that students will learn? Research albeit most of it correlationally says that they do and if its fairer to evaluate teachers on heir students’ learning, then these aspects of effective teaching merit our consideration. But here’s where the research lets us down. The quest for descriptors continues event though we have already identified many different traits and characteristics.