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PARENT’S EDUCATIONAL STATUS ON STUDENT’S ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN NIGERIA UNIVERSITIES
1.1 Background of the Study
Education is a basic tool used by society for transmission of its societal values. It has become an area of prime importance not only for government or voluntary agencies but also for individuals, families, governments and communities. “Voluntary agencies and individuals are committing a lot of resources in order to achieve success in the educational enterprise” (Orhungur, 1990).
In recent times, there has been an attitude behaviour formation, modification and crises over the deplorable level of academic performance of the Nigerian students particularly, University of Uyo. Parents, professionals, academicians and concerned social critics a like claimed that students are not learning as much as fast expected. Some complained that it is embarrassing to notice child colleges of education and cannot communicate effectively skills learnt, to a reasonable degree of proficiency and effectiveness; it is a well known fact that the level of parent education affects the academic performance of the child in school. In other words, parents that are intelligent academicians well educated and professionals provide their children with favourable environments to initiate or encourage them to develop similar interest and perform well in their parent’s subjects areas. Parents who are relatively higher to levels of education tend to transmit to their parents who are illiterates or semi illiterates. Parents positive values attach to education is a function of their educational achievement. Valencia and Renald, (1991).
Academic performance has always been the centre of educational research and despite varied statements about the aims of education, the academic performance and development of the student continues to be the primary and the most important goal of education. Therefore, the importance of academic performance of students in the Nigerian universities cannot be over emphasized. It acts as an emotional tonic. Good foundation is laid in the school in early years of life. Sound academic records of parents which influence students are the pillars on which the entire future personality stands. While considering the factors of student’s performance in the Nigerian universities, particularly University of Uyo especially, one possibly ignores those aspects in which individuals differ from one another. The starting point may be academic performance itself where ranging variations occur from the point of outstanding performance. If we consider a group of students, a few students are found to be high achievers while others are low achievers and a size-able number of students always appear as moderate achievers. The question arises, why such difference in academic performance exist? This question often appears in the minds of psychologists, educators and educationalists. For poor academic performance of students in the Nigerian universities and University of Uyo; many factors such as lack of study facilities, uncomfortable academic environment, indiscipline, unfavourable home environment, low intelligence, lack of commitment to their study, anxiety and student’s need to achieve have been found as being the causes (Cantu and Ndirangu, 2007). Home environment was also found to be important factors in determining academic performance of students in University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State. “From the beginning, parents have been the major persons involved in raising children in every society. This is why the family is recognized as an important agent of socialization. It is mainly through parent’s efforts and abilities that students are socialized to become productive citizens. So, whenever parents possess the resources and skills, and apply them effectively and joyfully in raising their children, the entire society benefits. This brings joy and pride to the nation, and encourages development and peaceful co-existence”. (Adekeyi, 2002). The level of educational status or attainment of parents could influence the academic performance of students in university of Uyo. According to research carried out by European Union monitoring report (2013), students from parents of high educational status performs significantly better in class assignment, test and examination than those students from parents who only have basic schooling or none.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Parents in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, are not that different as compared to the parents in other region in the country. Their impact on students’ growth cannot be underrated. Being a civil service state and economic growing domain, embedded with citizens of political class, filled with farmers of large, medium and small scale; with its good geographical landscape, so many parents are characterized by on stolen activities and the busy schedule on daily basis, trying to meet the end needs, polygamy, broken homes and illiteracy. All these may pose a critical challenge on the overall educational performance of students in Uyo. Moreover, it can be noted that in the district, the performances of most student in schools is not that up-to-standards.
The importance of education in an individual can not be overemphasized; education has a long lasting impact on one’s life. The acquisition of knowledge and skills and all other things that is worth while which are transmitted to a person through formal and informal education determines his/her potential in future.
Societies all over the world strive to achieve quantitative education for her citizenry. In order to achieve this noble course, so many factors must be put into consideration. Among them is the educational status of the parents. The family has a great role to play on the overall development of the child and his educational upbringing in particular. The gap in performance constitutes a great source of worry and serious concern as well as discontilure to parents.
Over the years, the society has been recording a persistent increase in the rate of poor student’s academic performance in the Nigerian universities. If this trend is not nip in the bud, it will have grave repercussion on the lives of the Nigerian students, their parents and the society at large. Comments from educators have shown that the blame from lack of good performance has been as a result of neglect and care free attitude towards academic work by students and parents. Home is the first school for a child where he/she is taught the basic norms and values by the parents before the child leaves for the formal education.
Contrary to the opinion that learning and reading begins in school, the first education of the child begins at home. A good and conducive home environment with adequate learning facilities would help boost the intellectual and academic capability of the child. Well educated parents would always have good attitudes towards education and provides learning materials such as textbooks and journals that could facilitate the learning process. The motivation of any intelligent students towards learning is being accelerated by the positive influence of his/her environment while others are negatively affected in terms of their non-stimulating home environment.
One then wonders how influence of parent’s background can play a vital role on student’s academic performances. In the high of this, the main problem of this research work is to find out if there exist in University of Uyo. The relationship between parents educational status on students academic performances.
“Parents educational status or background and socio-economic status influence the academic performance of students; that those two are lumped together because they are related and one many rightly say that they are married and hence should not be divorced” (Asikhia, 2010). On the other hand, there are quite in number of studies (Akomolafe and Olurunfeni-Olabisi, et al 2011) which have been reviewed in the areas of parental characteristics affecting student’s performance. However, most of them were wider in scope and thus the information provided may be too general. But no adequate study has been carryout to investigate the influence of parent’s educational status on the academic performance of students in Akwa Ibom State with specific reference to University of Uyo. Hence, there is need for this study to be carried out to investigate the parent’s educational status on student’s academic performance in University of Uyo.
1.3 Aim and Objective of the Study
The aim of this study is to access the educational status of parents on students academic performance, therefore, the following objective are posited.
1. To determine how the educational status of parent influences the academic performances of student’s semester examinations in University of Uyo.
2. To examine the influence of parents’ attitude to education on the academic performance of students in University of Uyo.
3. To determine how parents’ economic status affects the academic performance of students in University of Uyo.
4. To establish the extent to which family type affects the academic performance of students in University of Uyo.
5. To examine the relationship between academic performance of students in University of Uyo with their residential quarters/areas.
1.4 Significance of the Study
This research project tends to reveal the importance of parents with sound academic background and how it can affect their student’s academic performance positively or negatively. There are some students with the population sample who are over age or above average intelligence with adequate sensory activity, whose parents have sound academic background and have all the available opportunities but achieve less than what could be predicted.
Similarly, it is likely to encourage parents to make their students relatively comfortable in schools. The findings of this study will help the parents and students to identify the factors that actually cause poor academic performance among university students and make use of the suggested solutions to prevent such. It would be very useful to school psychologists, university administrators, counselors and educators who are concerned about the rising rate of low academic performance among Nigerian undergraduates.
This research project is likely to help the state nation and the world in general benefit from as adherence to the recommendation and implementation will help produce youths who would be better leaders of tomorrow. Finally, this research project will add to available literature and to also encourage further research on the topic.
1.5 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The range of these research-work deals with parent’s educational status on student’s academic performance in the Nigerian universities, particularly in University of Uyo. This is an inspired educational project in Nigerian universities to help create awareness among illiterate parents mostly in University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria and Africa at large.
1.6 Research Questions
1. How does the educational status of parents influence the academic performance of students in University of Uyo?
2. How does parents attitude to education influences the academic performance of students in University of Uyo?
3. What is the effect of parents’ economic status in the academic performance of students in University of Uyo?
4. To what extent does the family type affect academic performance of student in University of Uyo?
5. Does residential quarter/areas of parent’s influences student academic performance in their semester examination in University of Uyo?
1.7 Research Hypothesis
H0: There is no significant relationship between educational status of parents and academic performance of students in University of Uyo.
H1: There is a significant relationship between educational status of parents and academic performance of students in University of Uyo.
H0: There is no significant relationship between parents economic status and students academic performance.
H1: There is a significant relationship between educational status of parents and academic performances of students in University of Uyo.
1.8 Organization of the Study
For the purpose of clarity and easy understanding, the research work was organized into five major chapters. Chapter one represent the introduction, problem statement, objectives, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, research questions, research hypothesis, purpose of the study and the organization of the study. In chapter two of the project, related literature review, parents motivation and students academic performance, major causes of poor academic performance among university students, reasons for students poor academic performance and its features, parents involvement, parent involvement in students academic performance, models of parents involvement on students academic performance, parents character and its influence on students academic performance, theoretical framework, and conceptual framework were discussed. In chapter three, introduction, research design, population, study area, sampling size, sampling procedure, description of the research instruments, validity of research instrument, reliability of research instrument, data analysis techniques were the method used. In chapter four, data analysis test of hypothesis, discussion of major findings were clearly calculated. While chapter five includes, summary, conclusion and recommendation.
1.9 Definition of Terms
1. Academics: This is concern about teaching or studying those subjects or causes taught to provide skills.
2. Academic Performance: This refers to the student’s achievement, scores within the class and his position relative to all those subjected to the same test.
3. Education: This is a process of teaching, training and learning especially in school or colleges to improve on knowledge and develop skills.
4. Attitude: Is the way a person think and feels about something, it is normally shown in the way the person behaves.
5. Economic Status: This refers to the financial position or level of wealth among the parents.
6. Educational Level: This is the level of formal knowledge acquired by the parents.
7. Family Type: This refers to the structure of or composition of families.
8. Influence: This refers to the power to make other people agree with your opinions or do what you want.
9. Parental Characteristics: This refers to the attributes within the parent’s circle that affect the learning of students. This characteristic as investigated in this study includes family type, educational status, attitude and economic status.
10. Performance: This is a way success and is shown by how well somebody does something.
1.10 Limitation of the Study
One of the limitations that were encountered in this study was lack of cooperation among the respondents. Some of the respondents feared to disclose some critical information concerning the academic performance of their students in schools and especially those which were not doing well. As such, counter this limitation the researcher explained to the respondents the research was mainly for academic purpose and that their names and every other detail would remain anonymous