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PRINCIPAL’S ADMINISTRATIVE STYLES
Background of the Study
The success of any organization greatly dependent on the boss or manager of such an organization, thus the impact of leadership is most desirable for maximum success in the organization. The type of administrative pattern adopted in an organization determines to a large extent the behavioral pattern, the level of performance as well as job effectiveness of the workers.
Just like any other formal organization, a school is with a well structured pattern of administration, mostly in a hierarchical order. The schools have many goals, in a hierarchical order. The schools have many goals, functions and objectives to achieve e.g educating and grooming, vocational, moral and the total wellbeing of a child/leader, as such the administrative pattern or leadership styles of the principal is very crucial factor to take into cognizance, as it can either make (motivate) or mar (discourage) the teachers from performing effectively and committed.
In secondary school, administrative power flows from the principal to others in their hierarchy, as such they all become a component or divisible unit of the system. Just as any system, all the parts or component must function effectively to achieve optimum goals. According to Herbert Simeon (1976), administration occurs when two or more men cooperate to roll a stone that neither could have moved alone. This means that for any two or more people to take action for a fruitful aim, the following ingredient of administration must be in place – people must be present and agree to take the action, they must agree to relate and combine their effort to take action and there must be a man (leader) to spearhead the group objective. It is on this note that the administrator (principal) is saddled with the responsibility of effectively planning, organizing, directing, coordinating as well as deciding on what to do in order to accomplish the set goals. Also in secondary school administration, the effectiveness of teachers’ job performance is mostly dependent on the administrative pattern of the principal. This is because the principal is vested with the function of motivating the teaching staff by identifying their needs as well as providing for them. Other responsibilities are to recruit into different and existing vacancies based on their qualifications and specialization. He/she is also responsible for the orientation of new teachers into the school system. All these and many others must be done democratically rather than authoritatively. This is to incorporate them on the existing norms and patterns on which the school operates.
It is also the duty of the principal to assign available e staff to man the subjects as judiciously as he can. The principal directs all the affairs of the school such as time, finance, general supervision, as well as explaining school’s objectives to the staff, students and parents at the P.T.A. The authority to conduct classroom observation and other forms of evaluation to ascertain or identify the area of strength and weakness of the teachers is on the principal. All of these can only be achieved through maintenance of cordial relationship with the teachers. In line with the aforementioned facts, the influence of the administrative pattern of the principal on the job performance of the teachers cannot be over emphasized.
This is due to the fact that the principal apart from being the immediate boss is also disciplinarian, a supervisor and a motivator to the teachers. In case where he is hostile, authoritarian and inconsiderate to the plight of the teachers, it is bound to affect the performance of the teachers negatively. There are many theories or principles of school administration and according to peretomode (1995) it includes:
a) Scientific principle of school administration
b) Universal principle of school administration
c) Humanitarian principle of school administration
d) Prudential principle of school administration
a) The scientific principle of school administration is a school of thought, which is concerned with how to bring about increase in workers’ productivity and how to eliminate the inefficiency and wasteful practices in organizations through a more efficient utilization of human and material resources
b) The universal principal of school administration: Foyol, a French Geologist who is considered as the father of this administrative process identified the functions of management to the planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling. This implies that if these functions are effectively met by the principal (school administration), then the performance of the teachers would be positively affected.
c) Humanitarian principle of school administration: This principles focus on people and their interpersonal interactions, non-economic rewards and the need to meet the socio-psychological needs of workers in an organization. This may therefore be seen as the humanitarian considerations in school administration. According to Mort and Ross (1957) as cited in peretomode (1998)” Humanitarian considerations demand that each human being be dealt with by his fellow as a living, growing, potentially following organism that has a right to be participant in decisions that stand to affect him
d) Prudential principle in school administration: This implies being careful, acting only after careful thought and exerting sound judgment in the management of practical affairs.
1.2 Statement of the Problem