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PRINCIPAL’S ADMINISTRATIVE STYLES
Background of the Study
The success of any organization greatly dependent on the boss or manager of such an organization, thus the impact of leadership is most desirable for maximum success in the organization. The type of administrative pattern adopted in an organization determines to a large extent the behavioral pattern, the level of performance as well as job effectiveness of the workers.
Just like any other formal organization, a school is with a well structured pattern of administration, mostly in a hierarchical order. The schools have many goals, in a hierarchical order. The schools have many goals, functions and objectives to achieve e.g educating and grooming, vocational, moral and the total wellbeing of a child/leader, as such the administrative pattern or leadership styles of the principal is very crucial factor to take into cognizance, as it can either make (motivate) or mar (discourage) the teachers from performing effectively and committed.
In secondary school, administrative power flows from the principal to others in their hierarchy, as such they all become a component or divisible unit of the system. Just as any system, all the parts or component must function effectively to achieve optimum goals. According to Herbert Simeon (1976), administration occurs when two or more men cooperate to roll a stone that neither could have moved alone. This means that for any two or more people to take action for a fruitful aim, the following ingredient of administration must be in place – people must be present and agree to take the action, they must agree to relate and combine their effort to take action and there must be a man (leader) to spearhead the group objective. It is on this note that the administrator (principal) is saddled with the responsibility of effectively planning, organizing, directing, coordinating as well as deciding on what to do in order to accomplish the set goals. Also in secondary school administration, the effectiveness of teachers’ job performance is mostly dependent on the administrative pattern of the principal. This is because the principal is vested with the function of motivating the teaching staff by identifying their needs as well as providing for them. Other responsibilities are to recruit into different and existing vacancies based on their qualifications and specialization. He/she is also responsible for the orientation of new teachers into the school system. All these and many others must be done democratically rather than authoritatively. This is to incorporate them on the existing norms and patterns on which the school operates.
It is also the duty of the principal to assign available e staff to man the subjects as judiciously as he can. The principal directs all the affairs of the school such as time, finance, general supervision, as well as explaining school’s objectives to the staff, students and parents at the P.T.A. The authority to conduct classroom observation and other forms of evaluation to ascertain or identify the area of strength and weakness of the teachers is on the principal. All of these can only be achieved through maintenance of cordial relationship with the teachers. In line with the aforementioned facts, the influence of the administrative pattern of the principal on the job performance of the teachers cannot be over emphasized.
This is due to the fact that the principal apart from being the immediate boss is also disciplinarian, a supervisor and a motivator to the teachers. In case where he is hostile, authoritarian and inconsiderate to the plight of the teachers, it is bound to affect the performance of the teachers negatively. There are many theories or principles of school administration and according to peretomode (1995) it includes:
a) Scientific principle of school administration
b) Universal principle of school administration
c) Humanitarian principle of school administration
d) Prudential principle of school administration
a) The scientific principle of school administration is a school of thought, which is concerned with how to bring about increase in workers’ productivity and how to eliminate the inefficiency and wasteful practices in organizations through a more efficient utilization of human and material resources
b) The universal principal of school administration: Foyol, a French Geologist who is considered as the father of this administrative process identified the functions of management to the planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling. This implies that if these functions are effectively met by the principal (school administration), then the performance of the teachers would be positively affected.
c) Humanitarian principle of school administration: This principles focus on people and their interpersonal interactions, non-economic rewards and the need to meet the socio-psychological needs of workers in an organization. This may therefore be seen as the humanitarian considerations in school administration. According to Mort and Ross (1957) as cited in peretomode (1998)” Humanitarian considerations demand that each human being be dealt with by his fellow as a living, growing, potentially following organism that has a right to be participant in decisions that stand to affect him
d) Prudential principle in school administration: This implies being careful, acting only after careful thought and exerting sound judgment in the management of practical affairs.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Many categories of teachers could be found in our schools as they come and go in quick succession. Most of them see the teaching profession as a stepping stone to something higher and better, as such they do not really work assiduously. While some consider it as a means to an end, and since they have no zeal for what they do. It therefore brings about poor performance of teachers in various schools. Little wonder they say that the grass is greener on the other side but only to get disappointed on getting there.
However, many experts in the field of education and other stakeholders are of the opinion that teachers’ performance in the school system is maximally dependent upon principals administrative patterns. In the secondary school system, it is the principal who dictates the pace of teachers’ performance by either creating enabling environment for them to excel or becoming a wet blanket for them. Therefore, this research seeks to scrutinize the relationship between principals’ administrative pattern and job performance of teachers in Nsit Ubium Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which principal’s administrative styles can influence the job performance of teachers in Nsit Ubium Local Government Area.
The following are the objectives of the work:
- To examine the relationship between principal’s decision-making pattern and teacher job performance
- To examine the relationship between principal’s communication pattern and teacher job performance
- To examine the relationship between principal’s delegation of duties pattern and teacher job performance
- To examine the relationship between principal’s disciplinary pattern and teacher job performance
1.4 Significance of the Study
It is expected that the finding of this study will help school principals to understand the right structure to put in place for the teachers and the appropriate work environment to enhance effectiveness among teachers. It will also aid school administrators with the knowledge to handle certain aspects of the administration of the school like making policy decisions, disciplinary measures, organizational processes as well as communicational strategies to their teachers.
1.5 Research Question
The following research questions were formulated to guide the researcher in the study:
- What is the relationship between principal’s decision-making pattern and teacher job performance?
- What is the relationship between principal’s communication pattern and teacher job performance?
- What is the relationship between principal’s delegation of duties pattern and teacher job performance?
- What is the relationship between principal’s disciplinary pattern and teacher job performance?
1.6 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:
- There is no significant relationship between principal’s decision-making pattern and teacher job performance
- There is no significant relationship between principal’s communication pattern and teacher job performance
- There is no significant relationship between principal’s delegation of duties pattern and teacher job performance
- There is no significant relationship between principal’s disciplinary pattern and teacher job performance
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
The study is delimited to the principal’s administrative job performance and teachers job performance in Nsit Ubium Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. The variables for the present study included:
- Principal’s decision-making
- Principal’s communication
- Principal’s delegation of duties
- Principal’s disciplinary
1.9 Definition of Terms
Administrate Patterns: this is the principal’s pattern of running an organization like school.
Communication: This is the exchange of information by speaking, writing, or using some other medium with teachers.
Delegation of Duties: this is the act of transferring responsibility and authority for performing a particular contractual duty to another party within the school.
Discipline: it is the technique of enforcing discipline in the school