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ROOT CAUSES OF POVERTY AMONG RURAL POPULACE IN NIGERIA
1.1 Background of the Study
Poverty is one of the forces militating against the social and economic development in Nigeria, one of the main issues in development debates is how to tackle rural poverty. The constraints to developing the rural areas as well as problems of this critical sector. Have come to 100m very large. The level of poverty in Nigeria is astronomically high and political embarrassing considering the economic, human and minerals resources in Nigeria is endowed with; successive government have committed to alleviate poverty.
For over four decades in Nigeria, all attempts to put the rural areas on course of development have failed. Several conditions have continued to worsen and poverty has become a major issue in the rural areas inspite of their potentials. Therefore, become a major concern to governments, multilateral institutions and policy makers in different countries is to identify appropriate strategy for poverty alleviation especially in the rural areas. The rural areas however present problems that are contradictory paradox of its natural resources endowment. As noted by Chinsman (1998): rural committies are seriously marginalized in terms of most basic element of development. In addition, the inhabitants tend to live at the margin of existence and opportunities.
Most rural communities lack potable water, electricity, health care center, educational and recreational facilities and motorable roads, they experience high population growth rate, high infant and material mortality, low life expectancy and a peasant population that lacks modern equipment that can guarantee sustainable exploitation of the natural resources in which they live in. Inline with the recent finding that poverty is a natural phenomenon (world bank, 1990, field 2000,). Available statistics on the available incidence of poverty in Nigeria have shown that while rural poverty rate increased progressively from 3% in 1980 to 25.2% in 1996 that of rural area increased from 6.5% in 1989-31.6% in 1996. Beyond the fact that rural poverty rate was higher than that of urban rate between 1980. And 1996 was 22.2% against 25.2% for rural poverty rate during that period again, this confirm that rural people are the world hit by poverty in Nigeria.
To date poverty situation in Nigeria remains a paradox at least from two perspectives.
- Firstly: Poverty situation in Nigeria is a paradox because the poverty level appears as a contradiction considering the country immense wealth.
- Secondly: Poverty situation has worsened despite the huge number and materials resources that have been devoted to poverty reduction by successive governments in Nigeria with not substantial success achieved from such efforts.
Nevertheless, since poverty remain a development agencies for several decades. Indeed, since the mid-1980’s reducing poverty has become a major policy concern for government and donor agencies in all poverty stricken countries, Nigeria inclusive.
Years of military rules, fiscal neglect mismanagement, blatant embezzlement and corruption have compound the incidence of poverty in Nigeria. Against this background most Nigerians lacks economic and commercial, financial power to invest, while at the same time the commitment of government to the improvement of basic social infrastructure are among the worst in Nigeria.
Relating to the fact, Mahmoud (2003) posits that economic and social policies in Nigeria have accentuated poverty most especially in the rural areas while in the urban sectors one witness the existence of growth without visible development “A situation where one find a few super rich and core poor existing in the same environment Cite and Authority”.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Poverty situation in Nigeria seems to be unabating. Amid political and economic instability, poverty in Nigeria has steadily grown worsen. Since the first measured in 1980. Every sector of the Nigeria society is caught by the web of poverty. The rural areas records the highest level of poverty what is common in the sight of people living squalor hunger and utter destitution. The prevalence and ubiquity of poverty is competing favorably with the very air that we breathe.
The following factors have been identified as problems that militate against tackling of poverty at rural level in Nigeria. Thus the research intends to focus investigation in these factors which are:
1). Various policy and programmes embarked by different administration in Nigeria towards tackling poverty among rural population.
2). Are those eradication programmes appropriate measures to tackling poverty among the rural populace in Nigeria?
3). What are the remote causes of poverty among the rural populace in Nigeria?
4). And what impact has the problems have on Nigerian especially among the rural populace?
This research work therefore will not only examine these question but will also critically examine various strategies that have been adopted by governments to tackle poverty in Nigeria in the past, why its failed and as well as focus how to really, tackle poverty in Nigeria is a situational syndrome indeed.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1. The main objectives of this study is to examine the root causes of poverty among rural populace in Nigeria.
2. To examine various government programmes aimed at tacking poverty among rural people to ascertain the extent to which such programmes has help in poverty eradication.
3. To recommend appropriate measures and ways of tackling poverty among the rural populace in Nigeria.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The central thesis of this research work is to discuss and outline how to tackle poverty among the rural or grassroots citizens in Nigeria, at the same time paying a key examination to various programmes by the government towards the eradication of poverty. This study is very imperative and beneficial to the development of poverty eradication at the grassroots level.
This study is hoped, would guide policy makers in their quest towards poverty eradication of poverty and also act as a compass to interested scholars and also touch-off further debates on the issue’ which will contribute greatly to the extent literature on the area of tackling poverty among rural citizens in Nigeria.
1.5 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The research is limited to within assessing the politics of tackling poverty among rural populace in Nigeria.
Again this work has been limited be certain factors which includes financial constraints, time factor, transportation and other related problems which Pavely constituted the limit of this study.
1.6 Organization of the Study
To achieve the central thesis of this work, this work is divided into chapters thus: chapter one deals with the preliminary issues of: introduction, objective of the study, significances of the study, scope and organization of the study. Chapter two contains review of relevant literature theoretical framework and conceptual classification/clarification of some related terms:
Chapter Three:The chapter contains a quantitative analysis of phenomenon of this study on politic of tackling poverty among the rural populace of Nigeria, it funder explains a notable poverty profile of Nigeria this chapter also gives a brief but clear and see-able cause of poverty among rural populace in Nigeria, it further assess how to tackle poverty in Nigeria.
Finally the chapters four of this work dwell on a nourisheous summary of this well researched work, it further gives practicable recommendations to fasten poverty eradication among rural populace and a sounding conclusion of a work well written