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TEACHRES EFFECTIVENESS AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF BIOLOGY STUDENTS IN URUAN LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
This chapter shall cover the following; background of the study, statement of the problem, research question, research hypothesis, significance of the study and definition of terms.
1.2 Background of the study
The issue of poor academic performance of students in Nigeria has been of much concern to all and sundry. The problem is so much that it has led to the widely acclaimed fallen standard of education in Delta State and Nigeria at large. The quality of education depends on the teachers as reflected in the performance of their duties. Over time pupils’ academic performance in both internal and external examinations had been used to
determine excellence in teachers and teaching (Ajao 2001). Teachers have been shown to have an important influence on students’ academic achievement and they also play a crucial role in educational attainment because the teacher is ultimately responsible for translating policy into action and principles based on practice during interaction with the students (Afe 2001). Both teaching and learning depends on teachers: no wonder an effective teacher has been conceptualized as one who produces desired results in the course of his duty as a teacher (Uchefuna 2001). Considering governments’ huge investment in public education, its output in terms of
quality of students have been observed to be unequal with government expenditure. Consequent upon the observed deterioration in the academic achievement, attitude and values of secondary school students in public secondary schools one wonders if the high failure rates and the poor quality of the students is not a reflection of the instructional quality in the schools. In other words the ineffectiveness of teachers in classroom interaction with the students could be responsible for the observed poor performance of students and the widely acclaimed fallen standard of education in Nigeria. This fact is also applicable to teachers’ knowledge of the subject matter. For instance Lucky (2003) states that teachers knowledge of the subject matter is vey important if the performance of the students must improve. He however laments that in public secondary schools in Nigeria, government is not selective in their employment process. The people on top employ nepotism and partiality in their practice.
Teaching effectiveness has been accepted as a multidimensional construct since it measures a variety of different aspects of teaching such as; subject mastery, effective communication, lesson preparation and presentation Onyeachu 1996). The influence of teachers’ teaching effectiveness on the learning outcome of students as measured by students’ academic performance has been the subject of several studies (Adediwura and Tayo 2007; Adu and Olatundun 2007; Lockhead and Komenan 1988; Schacter and Thum 2004; Starr 2002). The above studies suggest that effective teaching is a significant predictor of students’ academic achievement.
Therefore effective teachers should produce students of higher academic performance. Poor academic performance of students in Nigeria has been linked to poor teachers’ performance in terms of accomplishing the teaching task, negative attitude to work and poor teaching habits which have been attributed to poor motivation (Ofoegbu 2004). It has also been
observed that conditions that would make for effective teaching such as resources available to teachers, general conditions of infrastructure as
well as instructional materials in public secondary schools in Nigeria are poor (Oredein 2000). These prevailing conditions would definitely show a
negative influence on the instructional quality in public schools, which may translate to poor academic performance, attitude and values of secondary school students.
Although teachers’ strong effect would significantly influence students’ academic achievement, other factors such as socio-economic background, family support, intellectual aptitude of student, personality of student, selfconfidence, and previous instructional quality have been found to also influence students’ examination score (Starr 2002) either positively or negatively. To this end, Blankstein (1996) had stated that students’ grades and test scores are not good indicators of the quality of teachers’ instruction. In support of this view, a study carried out in Nigeria by Joshua et al. (2006) showed that Nigerian teachers condemn the use of student achievement scores as indicators of teachers’ competence, performance or effectiveness. Since students’ academic scores are not the only predictors of teachers’ effectiveness, researchers have sought other fairer ways of evaluating teachers’ effectiveness. Students, administrators, colleagues and the teachers’ self evaluation have been used to evaluate teachers’ effectiveness. Students’ competence in the evaluation of the effectiveness of their teachers has been of great concern to researchers in education. However, studies have shown that students’ ratings are valuable indicators of teachers’ effectiveness (Barnett et al. 2003; Imhanlahini and Aguele 2006;
Pozo-Munoz et al. 2000). Despite the fact that there are research reports in support of students’ rating of their teachers’ effectiveness, Nuhfer (2004) and Pozo-munoz et al. (2000) warned that students rating should be one of a comprehensive evaluation system and should never be the only measure of teachers’ effectiveness. The school administrators’ evaluation has also been used to evaluate teachers’ effectiveness. The accuracy of school administrators’ evaluation of teachers’ effectiveness has also been studied. Jacob and Lefgren (2006) found a positive correlation between a principal’s assessment of how effective a teacher is at raising students’ achievement and that teacher’s success in doing so as measured by the value- added approach.
1.3 Statement of problem
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1.4 Objectives of the study
The main objective of this study is to examine teachers effectiveness and academic achievement of biology students in Uruan local government area, while specific objectives are as follows:
1. To examine the relationship between knowledge of subject matter and academic achievement of students in biology in Uruan local government area.
2. To find out the relationship between effective utilization of instructional materials and academic achievement e of students in biology in Uruan local government area.
3. To determine the relationship between class room management and academic achievement of students in biology in Uruan local government area.
1.5 Research questions
The following research questions will be answered:
1. What is the relationship between knowledge of subject matter and academic achievement of students in biology in Uruan local government area?
2. What is the relationship between effective utilization of instructional materials and academic achievement of students in biology in Uruan local government area?
3. What is the relationship between class room management and academic achievement of students in biology in Uruan local government area?
1.6 Research hypotheses
The following hypotheses will be tested::
1. There is no significant relationship between knowledge of subject matter and academic achievement of students in biology in Uruan local government area.
2. There is no significant relationship between effective utilization of instructional materials and academic achievement of students in biology in Uruan local government area.
3. There is no significant relationship between class room management and academic achievement of students in biology in Uruan local government area.