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WORK STRESS AND EMPLOYEE RETENTION A CASE STUDY OF GT BANK
1.1. Background of the study
Stress has become a very common phenomenon of routine life, and an unavoidable consequence of the ways in which society has changed. This change has occurred in terms of science and technology, industrial growth, urbanization, modernization, and automation on one hand; and an expanding population, unemployment, and stress on the other.
The term “stress” was first used by Selye (1936) in the literature on life sciences, describing stress as “the force, pressure, or strain exerted upon a material object or person which resist these forces and attempt to maintain its original state.” Stress can also be defined as an adverse reaction that people experience when external demands exceed their internal capabilities (Waters &Ussr, 2007).
Work stress is thought to affect individuals’ psychological and physical health, as well as organizations’ effectiveness, in an adverse manner. Workers who are stressed are also more likely to be unhealthy, poorly motivated, dissatisfied, less productive and less safe at work. The organizations are less likely to be successful in a competitive market. Stress can be brought about by pressures at home and at work. Employers cannot usually protect workers from stress arising outside of work, but they can protect them from stress that arises through work. Stress at work can be a real problem to the organization as well as for its workers. Good management and good work organization are the best forms of prevention. If employees are already stressed, their managers should be aware of it and know how to help (Rajinish Ratna, 2011).
Organizations today are pursuing complex objectives that are often difficult to reconcile; those of becoming more competitive, more productive and more profitable. To attain these objectives, they must constantly evolve (change how they organize production and work; introduce technological innovations, new human resources management policies, and innovative forms of work organization, etc. (De Coninck & Gollac, 2006).
The speed at which changes are taking place in organizations is resulting in work intensification, with consequences for workers and organizations alike. For individuals, the increased work stress has adverse effects on their health and safety at work, such as musculoskeletal disorders, psychological distress, fatigue and accidents (Du Tertre, 2006; Grumberg, 1986; Krause, Scherzer, & Rugulies, 2005; Sarazin, 2001).
Researcher in organizational behavior has shown that an individual could suffer from significant health complications backaches, headaches, gastrointestinal disturbances, anxiety and depression amongst others if subjected to stress over a long time. Behavioral changes in the form of excessive tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption, nervous disorders, heart diseases, diabetes, obesity also related to stress. Work stress is known to lead to job dissatisfaction, which in turn reduces the productivity (Madeline, 1983).
As mentioned by George A. (2002), the main conventional distinction between public and private organizations is their ownership (Rainey et al., 1976). Whereas private firms are owned by entrepreneurs or shareholders, public agencies are owned collectively by members of political communities. This distinction is associated with two further public/private contrasts. First, unlike their private counterparts, public agencies are funded largely by taxation rather than fees paid directly by customers (Niskanen, 1971; Walmsley and Zald, 1973). Secondly, public sector organizations are controlled predominantly by political forces, not market forces. In other words, the primary constraints are imposed by the political system rather than the economic system (cited by George A., 2002).
Effectiveness of GT Bank services is, therefore, determined partly by the satisfied employees the organizations maintain. According to Bram (2002), if job retentionis going down among workers in the public sector, it will have negative effects on the quality of the services. Not only because lesser motivated workers will deliver services of a lower quality, but also because it will make the public sector less attractive as an employer. This certainly will have adverse repercussions in a tight labor market.
This study, therefore, investigated and the Work stress and employee retention A case study of GT Bank.
1.2. Statement of the problem
Stress at work can be a real problem to the organization as well as for its workers. Work stress is thought to affect individuals’ psychological and physical health, as well as organizations’ effectiveness, in an adverse manner. This will happen both at public and private organization.
Workers who are stressed are also more likely to be unhealthy, poorly motivated, less productive and less safe at work, which brought less job satisfaction. The study by Frank M. Gryna , (2004) suggests stress is one of the factor that affect the organization productivity either in public and private organization.
Stress can be brought about by pressures at home and at work. According to, Chan et al., (2000) the ultimate results of this pressure have been found to one of the important factors influencing work stress in their work. Rapidly changing global scene is increasing the pressure of workforce to perform maximum output and enhance competitiveness. Indeed, to perform better to their job, there is a requirement for workers to perform multiple tasks in the workplace to keep abreast of changing technologies (Cascio, 1995; Quick, 1999).
In line to the above stated problem the researcher assessed work stress resulted from work environment, lack of financial reward, personal issue, management problem and inflexibility at work. Hence, the study looks such factors to fill the study research gap of work stress factors on GT Bank employee’s job retention
1.3. Research question
The following research questions are addressed, in line with the above stated problem statement. These are :
- What are the causes of work stress in GT Bank?
- What are the effects of work stress on employees’ job retention in GT Bank?
- What could be the magnitude work stress on a GT Bank employees job
- What are the major to be taken to reduce work stress and improve job satisfaction?
1.4. Objectives of the study
The following general and specific objectives are set for the study.
- Ø To assess indicating factors toward work stress on employees job retention of GT Bank employees
- Ø To investigate working environment stress toward job retention.
- Ø To identify how Inflexibility in work stress influence workers job retention.
- Ø To assess whether work stress limits job retention due to Lack of financial rewards
- Ø To identify how work stress limits the interactions of workers with colleagues to prompt Personal issues
- Ø To look management system stress at specifications regarding job satisfaction.
- Ø To offer suggestion, on the basis of the study results, ways and means for reduce work stress and improving Job retention on the employee and more effective and efficient.